Geography -Remote Sensing - Slide show free download

What is Remote Sensing?
• Remote sensing is the technique of deriving
information about objects on the Earth’s surface
without physically coming into contact with them.
• This process involves making observations using
sensors (cameras, scanners, radiometer, radar etc.)
• Mounted on platforms (aircraft and satellites),
• Which are at a considerable height from the earth
surface and
• Recording the observations on a suitable medium
(photographic films and videotapes or digital data on
magnetic tapes).
Types of Remote Sensing
• There are two main types of remote sensings:
• passive remote sensing and active remote sensing.
• Passive sensors detect natural radiation that is emitted
or reflected by the object or surrounding areas.
Examples of passive remote sensors – camera using
• Active sensors, on the other hand, emit energy in order
to scan objects and areas and the sensor then detects
and measures the radiation that is reflected from the
• RADAR and LiDAR are examples of active remote
History of RS
• The modern discipline of remote sensing arose with the
development of flight.
• The balloonist G. Tournachon made photographs of Paris from his
balloon in 1858.
• Messenger pigeons, kites, rockets and unmanned balloons were
also used for early images.
• With the exception of balloons, these first, individual images were
not particularly useful for map making or for scientific purposes]
• Systematic aerial photography was developed for military
purposes during World War I.
• The development of artificial satellites in the latter half of the 20th
century allowed remote sensing to progress to a global scale.
Early RS Platforms
Remote Sensing Platforms
• In order for a sensor to collect and record energy reflected
or emitted from a target or surface, it must be placed on a
stable platform above the the target or surface being
• Platforms for remote sensors may be situated :
• On the ground,
• On an aircraft or balloon (or some other platform within the
Earth's atmosphere), or
• On a spacecraft or satellite outside of the Earth's
• Ground-based sensors are often used to record detailed
information about the surface and latter compared with
information collected from aircraft or satellite sensors.
Sensors may
be placed on
a ladder,
tall building,
crane, etc
• Aerial platforms are primarily airplanes, although
helicopters are occasionally used.
• In space, remote sensing is sometimes conducted from the
space shuttle or, more commonly, from satellites.
• Satellites are objects which revolve around Planets (Earth).
• The moon is a natural satellite of the Earth.
• Man-made satellites include those platforms launched for
remote sensing, communication, and telemetry (location
and navigation) purposes.
• Because of their orbits, satellites permit repetitive
coverage of the Earth's surface on a continuous basis.
• Cost is often a significant factor in choosing among the
various platform options.
Geostationary Orbit
• The path followed by a satellite is referred to as its orbit.
• Satellite orbits depend on the objective of the sensor.
• Satellites at very high altitudes, which view the same portion of
the Earth's surface at all times have geostationary orbits.
• These geostationary satellites, at altitudes of approximately
36,000 kilometres, revolve at speeds which match the rotation of
the Earth so they seem stationary, relative to the Earth's surface.
• This allows the satellites to observe and collect information
about a particular area continuously .
• Weather and communications satellites commonly have these
types of orbits.
• Due to their high altitude, some geostationary weather satellites
can monitor weather and cloud patterns covering an entire
hemisphere of the Earth.
Geostationary - Orbits -
Near Polar
Near-Polar Sun-Synchronous Orbit
• Many remote sensing platforms are designed to follow
a north south orbit which, allows them to cover most of
the Earth's surface over a certain period of time.
• These are near-polar orbits, so named for the
inclination of the orbit relative to a line running
between the North and South poles.
• Many of these satellite orbits are also sunsynchronous such that they cover each area of the
world at a constant local time of day called local sun
• At any given latitude, the position of the sun in the sky
as the satellite passes overhead will be the same within
the same season.
Satellite Passes
• Most of the remote sensing satellite today are in near-polar
• This means that the satellite travels northwards on one side
of the Earth and then southwards on the second half of its
• These are called ascending and descending passes.
• If the orbit is also sun-synchronous, the ascending pass is
most likely on the shadowed side of the Earth while the
descending pass is on the sunlit side.
• Sensors recording reflected solar energy only image the
surface on a descending pass, when solar illumination is
available. Active sensors which provide their own
illumination can also image the surface on ascending
Ascending and Descending Passes
Swath and Pass
• As a satellite revolves around the Earth, the sensor "sees" a
certain portion of the Earth's surface.
• The area imaged on the surface, is referred to as the swath.
• As the satellite orbits the Earth from pole to pole, its east-west
position wouldn't change if the Earth didn't rotate.
• However, as seen from the Earth, it seems that the satellite is
shifting westward because the Earth is rotating (from west to
east) beneath it.
• This apparent movement allows the satellite swath to cover a
new area with each consecutive pass.
• The satellite's orbit and the rotation of the Earth work together
to allow complete coverage of the Earth's surface, after it has
completed one complete cycle of orbits.
Uses of Remote Sensing
• Remote sensing has the ability to provide a birds eye view
of a large area of the earth’s surface in one frame.
• Remote sensing makes it possible to collect data on
dangerous or inaccessible areas.
• Remote sensing also replaces costly and slow data
collection on the ground, ensuring in the process that
areas or objects are not disturbed.
• Orbital platforms collect and transmit data from different
parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
• Other uses include Natural resource Management,
agricultural fields such as land use and conservation, etc.,
• Remote sensing applications include monitoring
deforestation , glacial features in Arctic and Antarctic
regions, and ocean depths.
Spatial resolution
• The detail discernible in an image is dependent on
the spatial resolution of the sensor and refers to
the size of the smallest possible feature that can
be detected. Spatial resolution of passive sensors
depends primarily on their Instantaneous Field
of View (IFOV)...
• most remote sensing images are composed of a
matrix of picture elements, or pixels, which are
the smallest units of an image.
• Image pixels are normally square and represent a
certain area on an image.
Radiometric resolution
• The radiometric resolution of an imaging
system describes its ability to discriminate
very slight differences in energy The finer the
radiometric resolution of a sensor, the more
sensitive it is to detecting small differences in
reflected or emitted energy.
By comparing a 2-bit image with an 8-bit image, we can see
that there is a large difference in the level of detail depending on
their radiometric resolutions.
Temporal Resolution
• the concept of revisit period, which refers to the length
of time it takes for a satellite to complete one entire
orbit cycle.
• The revisit period of a satellite sensor is usually several
days. Therefore the absolute temporal resolution of a
remote sensing system to image the exact same area at
the same viewing angle a second time is equal to this
• Remote sensing has the ability to collect imagery of the
same area of the Earth's surface at different periods of
• Changes can be detected by collecting and comparing
multi-temporal imagery.
Aryabhata India’s first Satellite
launched -19 April 1975
• Bhaskara 1 was India’s First experimental
remote sensing satellite -7 June 1979 .
• IRS 1A -First operational remote sensing
satellite - 17 March 1988 .
• Oceansat-1 (IRS P4) - 26 May 1999.
• Resourcesat-1 (replaced IRS IC and ID) -17
October 2003.
• Resourcesat-2 - 20 April 2011
IKONOS satellite was lauched on 24 September 1999.
IKONOS images can reach spatial resolutions of 4 m in
multispectral mode and of 82 cm in panchromatic mode.
It is operated by the company GeoEye (USA).
IKONOS image detail (0.8 m resolution) of the
Rio de Janeiro Port, Brasil (20/04/02).
Quick Bird
QuickBird was launched on 18 October 2001. It collects
image data to 0.61 m pixel resolution degree of detail.
It is owned and operated by the company DigitalGlobe
image of the
n coast of
Sri Lanka
GeoEye-1 was launched on 6 September 2008. It is also operated
by the company GeoEye (USA).
GeoEye-1 provides imagery with 41 cm resolution in
panchromatic mode and 1.65 m in multispectral mode.
Korea's Kompsat-2 satellite was launched on 28 July
2006. Kompsat-2 data have a resolution of 1 m in black
and white and of 4 m in colour.
Sydney, Australia; Olympic Park
Durrat Al Bahrain - KOMPSAT-2
Formosat-2 is the first high resolution satellite offering
daily revisit acquisition services.
The satellite was launched by the Taiwanese space
agency on 20 May 2004. Its maximum spatial resolution
is 2 m.
Rio de Janeiro - Brazil
The SPOT (Satellites Pour l’Observation de la Terre or
Earth-observing Satellites) remote-sensing programme
was set up in 1978 by France in partnership with
Belgium and Sweden.
Perth -Australia
Indus Valley
Resourcesat -1