Chapter Sixteen: Work Design Organization Development and Change Thomas G. Cummings

advertisement
Organization Development and Change
Chapter Sixteen:
Work Design
Thomas G. Cummings
Christopher G. Worley
Learning Objectives
for Chapter Sixteen
To explore work design as a central
component of many EI interventions
To approach work design from three
different perspectives: engineering,
motivational, and socio-technical
To understand how different approaches
align with different technical and social
conditions
16-2
Work Design Approaches

Engineering: Traditional Jobs & Groups
 High specification and routinization
 Low task variety and autonomy

Motivational: Enriched Jobs
 High task variety and autonomy
 Feedback of results

Sociotechnical: Self-Managing Teams
 Control over total task
 Multi-skilled, flexible, and self-regulating
16-3
Traditional Jobs & Workgroups
Based on Scientific Management




Highly specified behaviors
Narrow range of skills
Low levels of authority and discretion
Highly repetitive
Benefits



Low selection and training costs
High productivity
High levels of control
16-4
Enriched Jobs
Core Job
Characteristics
Critical
Psychological
States
Skill variety
Task identity
Task significance
Experienced
Meaningfulness
of the Work
Autonomy
Experienced
Responsibility
Feedback from
work
Knowledge of
Actual Results
Outcomes
• Hi internal
work motivation
• Hi growth
satisfaction
• Hi job
satisfaction
• Hi work
effectiveness
Moderators
16-5
Core Job Dimensions





Skill Variety - extent to which multiple skills are
used
Task Identity - extent to which an individual works
on a “whole” task
Task Significance - impact of the work on others
Autonomy - amount of discretion in the work
Feedback from the Work Itself - extent to which
work provides information on effectiveness
16-6
Job Enrichment
Application Stages

Perform a thorough diagnosis
 Form natural work units
 Combine tasks
 Establish client relationships
 Vertical loading
 Opening feedback channels
16-7
Sociotechnical Systems Approach
Sociotechnical systems (STS) theory is based on
two basic ideas:
 An organization or work unit is a combined, social-plus-
technical system (sociotechnical)
 The system is open in relation to their environment and must
interact with their environments to survive and develop
Self-managed work teams is the most prevalent
application of STS
16-8
Sociotechnical Systems Diagnosis
Define the Work System
 Conduct an Environmental Analysis
 Conduct a Technical Analysis
 Conduct a Social Analysis

16-9
Sociotechnical Systems Design
Can work system be designed to better fit with
the environment?
 Can work system be designed to better operate
conversion process and control variances?
 Can work system be designed to better satisfy
members’ needs?

16-10
Team Task Design & Development







Whole and interdependent tasks
Common mission and goals
Requisite multi-skills
Task and boundary control
Feedback of results
Minimum specification design
Develop from narrow to broad boundaries for
discretion
16-11
Team Process Intervention

Promoting healthy interpersonal relationships
 Coordinating efforts
 Weighting member inputs and sharing
knowledge
 Making good decisions
 Confronting and resolving conflicts
16-12
Organization Support Systems
Performance MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Training SYSTEMS
Information SYSTEMS
Selection SYSTEMS
Management SYSTEMS
16-13
Self Managed Teams
Application Stages
Sanction the design effort
 Diagnose the work system
 Generate appropriate designs
 Specify support systems
 Implement and evaluate the work design
 Continual change and improvement

16-14
Designing Work for
Technical and Personal

Technical Factors
 Technical interdependence: the extent to which cooperation
among workers is required
 Technical Uncertainty: the amount of information processing
and decision making among workers necessary to do the work

Personal Need Factors


Social Needs: the desire for significant social relationships
Growth Needs: the desire for personal accomplishment,
learning, and development.
16-15
High Technical Uncertainty Low
Work Designs That
Optimize Technology
Traditional
Job Design
Traditional
Work Groups
Enriched Jobs
Self-Regulating
Work Groups
Low
Technical Interdependence High
16-16
High
Growth Needs Low
Work Designs that
Optimize Personal Needs
Traditional
Job Design
Enriched Jobs
Low
Traditional
Work Groups
Self-Regulating
Work Groups
Social Needs
High
16-17
2-18
Download
Related flashcards

3D printer companies

– Cards

Create flashcards