Starter Question
 Think about a time someone gave you helpful feedback.
What made it helpful?
Feedback and Advice
Advice is recommendations about what might be thought, said or
done to manage a problem
Feedback is evaluative communication
 Evaluation literally means “to find value in”
Levels of Feedback
Task and procedural
Types of Feedback
 Descriptive
 Evaluative Praise
 Prescriptive
Feedback and Advice
Benefits of giving advice:
 Helps organization function more effectively
 Enhances employee identification with organization
 Enhances employee satisfaction & performancePraise
(if positive)
 Increases awareness of expectations
 Allows management to learn things
Giving feedback and advice can result in negative consequences:
 Make stress worse
 Undermine autonomy
 Damage the relationship with the advice giver
Feedback and Advice
Advice for giving good advice and feedback:
 Determine if advice/feedback is really needed or wanted
 Make sure you have expertise in the area you are advising in
 Come across as confident and share your similar
 Advice/feedback should be appropriate for the relationship you
have with the recipient (e.g., the closer you are the better)
 Be respectful of the recipient’s autonomy and competence
 Be detailed and accurate
 Use whole messages
 Recommend concrete, feasible behaviors that are useful
 Define appropriate consequences for success and failure
Considerations When Giving Feedback
Where: In public or in private
When: Timeliness
– Close in time to when behavior happened
– No surprises or ambushing
Behavior that can be changed
Alone or with others
Partial vs Whole messages
Whole Messages
Direct, concrete messages that convey the truth with both
kindness and firmness
Whole messages combine:
+Observations +Thoughts +Feelings +Needs +Consequences
Partial messages leave one or more out
Partial message: “Why don’t you act a little nicer?”
Whole message: “You say very little (observation). It makes me
think that you don’t care (thought). I feel angry (feeling), but
what I really want is for you to talk to me (need). If you do, I will
spend more time with you (consequence)”
Advice for giving whole messages:
 Emphasize that you are being honest out of respect
 Put value on your relationship with the target
 Focus on things someone can change
Guidelines for Receiving Feedback
 Listen without interrupting
 Keep an open mind and avoid defensiveness
 Paraphrase to ensure fidelity before responding
 Be gracious and assume the person giving feedback has your
best interests in mind