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vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE DECLARATION ii DEDICATION iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv ABSTRACT v ABSTRAK vi TABLE OF CONTENTS vii LIST OF TABLES xii LIST OF FIGURES xv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF APPENDICES I PAGE xvii xi INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Background of the Research 3 1.3 Problem Statement 5 1.4 Purpose of Study 6 1.5 Research Question 6 1.6 Research Objectives 7 1.7 Research Hypothesis 7 1.8 Scope of the Research 9 1.9 Limitation of Study 10 1.10 Importance of the Study 11 1.11 Conceptual Definition 12 1.11.1 KSI 12 1.11.2 Predictors of KSI 12 viii 1.11.3 The Individual and Psychological Factors II 15 1.11.4 The Organizational Factors 17 1.11.5 The Technological Factor 21 1.12 Operational Definition 22 1.13 Summary 23 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction 24 2.2 The Notion of Knowledge 24 2.3 KM 26 2.4 Knowledge Sharing 29 2.5 The Model of Knowledge Sharing 31 2.5.1 KM Process 32 2.5.2 Spiral of Organizational Knowledge Creation 2.6 2.5.3 Knowledge Creation Modes 36 2.5.3 Four Elements for KS 37 The Theories of Behaviour 38 2.6.1 The Theory of Reasoned Action 38 2.6.2 The Theory of Planned Behavior 2.6.3 Technology Acceptance Model 2.6.4 Model of Focused Change of Behaviour 2.7 34 The Relationship between KSI Predictors and KSI 2.7.1 The Relationship between Attitude and KSI 2.7.2 The Relationship between Subjective Norm and KSI 39 43 44 45 46 46 ix 2.7.3 The Relationship between PBC and KSI 2.8 Factors Influencing KSI 2.9 The Individual and Psychological Factors 2..9.1 Anticipated Reciprocal Relationship 2.9.2 48 49 50 51 2.9.3 Knowledge Self-efficacy 53 2.9.4 Trust 54 The Organizational Factors 56 2.10.1 Fairness 56 2.10.2 Affiliation 58 2.10.3 Task Interdependence 59 The Technology Factors 60 2.11.1 Controllability of ICT 62 2.12 Previous Studies 63 2.13 Conclusions 66 2.10 2.11 III Anticipated Extrinsic Rewards 47 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction 67 3.2 Research Design 67 3.3 Research Framework 68 3.4 Sampling 68 3.5 Data Collection 71 3.6 Research Instrument 72 3.7 Reliability and Validity 75 3.8 Method of Data Analysis 82 3.8.1 Descriptive Analysis 82 3.8.2 Inferential Analysis 83 3.9 Summary 88 x IV DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 4.1 Introduction 90 4.2 Respondent Background 90 4.3 Normality Test 93 4.3.1 Normality Test on Correlation Relationship 4.3.2 Normality Test on Dominant Predictors 4.4 4.5 95 99 Analysis on the Level of KSI 107 4.4.1 Level of KSI 111 4.4.2 Level of Attitude toward KS 112 4.4.3 Level of SN about KS 113 4.4.4 Level of PBC towards KS 114 4.4.5 Level of ARR 115 4.4.6 Level of AER 116 4.4.7 Level of KSE 117 4.4.8 Level of Trust 118 4.4.9 Level of Fairness 119 4.4.10 Level of Affiliation 120 4.4.11 Level of Task Interdependence 121 4.4.12 Level of Controllability of ICT 122 Analysis on Correlation Relationship 123 4.5.1 Relationship between KSI Predictors and KSI 4.5.2 123 Relationship between Individual and Psychological Factors and 125 Attitude 4.5.3 Relationship between Organizational Factors and SN 4.5.4 Relationship between Technological Factor and PBC 4.6 Analysis on Dominant Predictors 4.6.1 Dominant Predictors of KSI 127 128 129 129 xi 4.7 4.6.2 Dominant Predictors of Attitude 131 4.6.3 Dominant Predictors of SN 133 4.6.4 Dominant Predictors of PBC 134 Mediation Analysis 135 4.7.1 Mediation Analysis of Attitude 138 4.7.2 Mediation Analysis of SN 141 4.7.3 Mediation Analysis of Technological Factor 4.8 V Conclusion 143 146 DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 5.1 Introduction 152 5.2 Discussions 152 5.3 Contributions 156 5.3.1 Theoretical Contribution 156 5.3.2 Practical Contribution 157 5.3.3 Methodological Contribution 158 5.4 Limitations and Future Research Directions 5.5 Conclusions REFERENCES 159 160 161 xii LIST OF TABLES NO . 1.1 TITLE Operational Definitions of the PAGE 22 Constructs 2.1 Knowledge Perspectives and 28 Implications for KM and KMS 3.1 The Summary of Sampling Frame 69 3.2 Population and Samples Size 71 selected 3.3 List of Items for KSI 73 3.4 List of Items for Factors 74 Influencing KSI 3.5 Survey Instrument Internal 76 Reliability 3.6 KMO and Bartlett's Test 79 3.7 Factor Loading for the Rotated 80 Factors (Test 1: KSI and KSI Predictors) 3.8 Factor Loading for the Rotated 81 Factors (Test 2: Factors Influencing KS) 3.9 The Categorization of Level Used 83 xiii in this Study 3.10 Guilford‘s Rules of Thumb 84 3.11 Statistic Analysis Tools Used in the 89 Research 4.1 Profile of Respondents 91 4.2 Position and Grade 93 4.3 Measures of Central Tendency and 93 Dispersion 4.4 Tests of Normality 95 4.5 Casewise Diagnostics 101 (Dependent Variable: KSI) 4.6 Casewise Diagnostics 103 (Dependent Variable: Attitude) 4.7 Casewise Diagnostics 105 (Dependent Variable: SN) 4.8 Casewise Diagnostics 107 (Dependent Variable: PBC) 4.9 The Overall KSI Level among 110 Academicians in UTM 4.10 Level of KSI 111 4.11 Level of Attitude toward KS 112 4.12 Level of SN about KS 113 4.13 Level of PBC 114 xiv 4.14 Level of ARR 115 4.15 Level of AER 116 4.16 Level of KSE 117 4.17 Level of Trust 118 4.18 Level of Fairness 119 4.19 Level of Affiliation 120 4.20 Level of Task Interdependence 121 4.21 Level of Controllability of ICT 122 4.22 Relationship between KSI 124 Predictors and KSI 4.23 Relationship between Individual 126 and Psychological Factors and Attitude 4.24 Relationship between 128 Organizational Factors and SN 4.25 Relationship between 128 Controllability of ICT and PBC 4.26 The Estimates of Model 130 Coefficients (Dependent Variable: KSI) 4.27 ANOVA Table (Dependent 130 Variable: KSI) 4.28 ANOVA Table (Dependent 132 Variable: KSI) 4.29 ANOVA Table (Dependent 132 xv Variable: Attitude) 4.30 The Estimates of Model 133 Coefficients (Dependent Variable: SN) 4.31 ANOVA Table (Dependent 134 Variable: SN) 4.32 The Estimates of Model 134 Coefficients (Dependent Variable: PBC) 4.33 ANOVA Table (Dependent 135 Variable: PBC) 4.34 Summary of Mediation Analyses 145 Incorporating the Model Variables across All Constructs 4.35 Summary on Hypotheses Testing 148 4.36 Summary of Research Objectives 150 and Results across All Constructs xvi LIST OF FIGURES NO . 2.1 TITLE Knowledge Management Value PAGE 27 Chain 2.2 KM Process 32 2.3 Modes of Knowledge Conversion 34 2.4 Spiral of Organizational Knowledge 5 Creation 2.5 Knowledge Creation Modes 36 2.6 Four Elements for KS 37 2.7 Theory of Reasoned Action 39 2.8 Theory of Planned Behavior 41 2.9 Technology Acceptance Model 43 2.10 Model of Focused Change of 45 Behaviour 2.11 Theoretical Framework 66 3.1 The Total Effect of X on Y 87 3.2 The Indirect Effect of X on Y 87 through M 4.1 Scatterplot Graph of Relationship between KSI Predictors and KSI 96 xvii 4.2 Scatterplot Graph of Relationship 97 between Individual and Psychological Factors and Attitude 4.3 Scatterplot Graph of Relationship 98 between Organizational Factors and SN 4.4 Scatterplot Graph of Relationship 99 between Controllability of ICT and PBC 4.5 Normal P-P Plot of Regression 100 Standardized Residual (Dependent Variable: KSI) 4.6 Scatterplot of Regression 101 Standardized Residual vs. Standardized Predicted Values (Dependent Variable: KSI) 4.7 Normal P-P Plot of Regression 102 Standardized Residual (Dependent Variable: Attitude) 4.8 Scatterplot of Regression 103 Standardized Residual vs. Standardized Predicted Values (Dependent Variable: Attitude) 4.9 Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residual (Dependent Variable: SN) 104 xviii 4.10 Scatterplot of Regression 105 Standardized Residual vs. Standardized Predicted Values (Dependent Variable: SN) 4.11 Normal P-P Plot of Regression 106 Standardized Residual (Dependent Variable: PBC) 4.12 Scatterplot of Regression 107 Standardized Residual vs. Standardized Predicted Values (Dependent Variable: PBC) 4.13 Decision Tree for Establishing and 137 Understanding Types of Mediation and Non-Mediation 4.14 Results of Spearman‘s Coefficient 146 Correlation (RO2 and RO3) 4.15 Results of Multiple Regression 147 Analysis (RO4 and RO5) 4.16 Research Model (result after the survey) 151 xix LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ANOVA - Analysis of Variance B - unstandardized coefficients FAB - Faculty of Built Environment FBB - Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering FKA - Faculty of Civil Engineering FKBSK - Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science FKE - Faculty of Electrical Engineering FKKKSA - Faculty of Natural Resource and Chemical Engineering FKM - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering FKSG - Faculty of Geoinformation Science And Engineering FP - Faculty of Education FPPSM - Faculty of Management and Human Resource Development FS - Faculty of Science FSKSM - Faculty of Computer Science and Information System FTI - Faculty of Islamic Civilisation H - hypothesis ICT - information and communication technology IS - information systems xx IT - information technology KM - knowledge management KMS - knowledge management systems KS - knowledge sharing KSI - knowledge sharing intention PCA - Principal Component Analysis PBC - perceived behavioural control RO - research objective RQ - research question SECI - socialization, externalization, combination and internalization SN - subjective norm SPSS - Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) TAM - Technology Acceptance Model TPB - Theory of Planned Behavior TRA - Theory of Reasoned Action UTM - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia xxi LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix TITLE PAGE A Questionnaire 176 B List of Items Generated for Each 182 Construct C Spearman's rho between Construct Correlations 188