Jonathan Kays, Extension Specialist Natural Resources University of Maryland Extension

Jonathan Kays,
Extension Specialist
Natural Resources
University of Maryland Extension
[email protected]
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Changing the Landscape Paradigm: From
Mowed to Natural Use
Enhancing Existing Natural Areas
WIBY Calls for a Paradigm Shift
 Think about planting many trees
and shrubs, not just a few
 Move from micro-management
to thinking at a system scale
 Design a system that contributes
to community social and
ecological values
Wildlife food
Planting Stuff
Good Grasses
Planting Beds
Killing Stuff
Trail Design
Helping Trees
Native Plants
Ownership Size Decreasing:
Woodland & Open
  owners
  size of properties
 new/different owner’s
 The words we use:
Forests >
Woods >
[Natural Areas]
Landowners: part of the solution
 If neighbors cooperate…
 Everybody’s actions
influence water quality, air
quality, aesthetics, etc.
 Every little bit of effort
Guide Overview
Table of Contents – pg iii
 Part 1: Introduction: Assessing your
interests in your land
 Part 2: Get to Know Your Property: In
the landscape, identifying land
management units, tree ID
 Part 3: Ecological Principles:
Succession, forest principles, water
resources, wildlife ecology
Guide Overview
 Part 4: Put Your Knowledge into Practice:
recreation, aesthetics, choosing projects, land
management techniques, timetable, & record
your progress
 Part 5: Workbook used to assess the potential
of your property
 Appendices: tables, resource list, glossary,
WIYB Guide Using a Learning Approach
to Help You Develop a Plan
 Indentify your interests
 Inventory your property
 Understand ecological principles
 Assess potential for forest, wildife, water quality,
recreation & aesthetics
 Choose projects
 Learn techniques
 Make a timetable
 Record your progress
Conceptual Framework of Looking at
One’s Property
 Types of Land use:
 Intensive use – buildings,
sheds, paved areas, etc
 Intermediate use – lawns,
garden, pasture, orchard
 Natural use – forested,
unmowed areas with
small trees & shrubs
Google Earth
Paired 3-acre plots
Intensive –
Intermediate – Natural
Use Areas
Natural Succession – Some
Planting after 3 years
Natural Succession –
Some Planting after 16
Nelsons’ Property Map
Activity 1 (case
study), Page 7 in
Potential Natural Area Improvement Projects
 Remove damaged trees and/or limbs
 Control exotic and/or invasive species
 Improve tree growth by thinning an overcrowded stand
 Plant trees
Potential Forest Products Projects
 Firewood for personal or others’ use
 Ginseng or other medicinal plants from the natural areas of the
 Grapevines for wreaths
 Shiitake mushrooms
Potential Wildlife Habitat
 Create brush or rock piles
 Encourage growth of wildlife food trees
 Improve shelter opportunities by planting trees, brush piling or
creating soft edge
Potential Recreation Projects
 Create or improve trails
 Create a campfire or camping area
 Create a natural-area haven (place to relax)
 Improve opportunities for hunting or wildlife watching
Nelsons’ Constraints to Land Management
Activity 5 – Page 13
Part II
Getting to Know Your Property
Inventory Your Property - Page 15
• Your property’s in the
• Surrounding properties
• Land management units
• Basic tree and shrub
Patch Characteristics Affect Habitat Value
Figure 2 – Page 18
 Patch size and proximity affect wildlife habitat
 Larger, closer, and connected habitat is more useful to wildlife
 Figure D above is best for wildlife; Figure A is worst
Google Earth a Great Tool
Soil Survey from Web Soil Survey
Designate land
management Units
 Add units to hand drawn map or
whatever type of map used.
 Tree identification basics
Activity 7, Page 23 - 24
The Nelsons’ Most Common Tree and Shrub Species by
Land Management Unit
Activity 7, Page 23
Tree and Shrub ID
Part II, Lesson 3, Page 25
 What kind of trees and shrubs grow on your land?
 Use simple MD Leaf Key to start. Peterson’s Guide to
Trees and Shrubs a great resource. Many online
resources as well.
 The “manual” covers the bare basics
Logging in Large-Lot Suburban Developments
with a Good Forester
Use smaller and lower impact harvesting and
processing equipment
Part III - Ecological Principles
Ecology: the study of natural communities and how they function
and interact
 Principles of succession
 Principles of forestry
 Water resources and your
natural area
 Principles of wildlife ecology
The Dynamic Natural Area:
Principles of Forest Succession
 Natural areas change over time, whether or not you do
anything to them.
 You can alter the process of succession
 Tree vary in their requirement for sunlight.
The Dynamic Natural Area:
Principles of Succession
 Different successional stages provide different wildlife
habitat, aesthetics, and recreation.
 Every small wooded lot may not contain every stage of
Each stage of succession supports different wildlife.
Diversity of habitat a good thing.
Forestry Principles:
Getting Down to Basics
Tree size not directly related to age
Different tree species require
different conditions
Trees grow at different rates compete for resources (i.e.,
sunlight, water, and nutrients)
Forests are 3-dimensional
Forestry Principles:
Getting Down to Basics
Trees reproduce either from seeds or sprouts
Trees don’t live forever; dead trees valuable for wildlife and
No matter how you manage your land, but especially if you
practice passive management, invasive and exotic species
will inhabit it.
Improving Wildlife Habitat Value
 Natural areas will increase
food, cover, water, space
 Get across the message,
‘Messy is okay’
 New natural areas will
attract wildlife that will
increase wildlife-human
conflicts (i.e. deer)
Designate land
management Units
 Add units to hand drawn map or
whatever type of map used.
 Tree identification basics
Activity 7, Page 23 - 24
Habitat Elements
on Your Land
Activity 15 – Page 53
Special Section on
unanticipated issues
with wildlife - Pg 54
Lawn Conversion Options
 Creating a Wooded Natural Area
• Managing natural succession
• Maintain old field areas
• Tree planting or “afforestation”
 Natural Areas without Tree Cover
• Occasional mowing
• Warm season grasses
• Native wildflower areas
Conversion to Woodland
“Taking forestry to the backyard”
 Best management practices
 Brush piles
 Create campfire area
 Firewood cutting
 Food plots
 Mast trees
 Tree planting
 Trails & roads
 Much more…
Choosing Projects
Menu driven table
helps landowners
identify & rank
objectives with
some suggested
broad project ideas.
Similar table for
other objectives
Make a Timetable – Spell out Details
Lesson 5, Activity 19, page 74
Record Your Progress
Important: Take pictures…
Enjoy the Journey!!
Results of this Three-State Effort?
Maryland – Virginia - Pennsylvania
 Sale of over 5,000 WIYB manuals
 Distribution of over 1,500 resource CD’s
 4-Minute introductory video
 Workshop teaching modules and materials
 Effective outreach recognized by state forest stewardship
 Impact with new audiences
New Programs & Resources
 Lawn to Woodland
 Small Acreage Professional
Forester Directory
 Revision of WIYB Guide
Woodland Activities of Private Landowners
316 follow-up surveys sent in fall 2007 - 35% return
Woodland Activity
Service Cat.
% Done
% Willing
to Pay
Controlling vines
Forest health
Recreational trail
Wildlife brush piles
Felling hazard trees
Planting trees & shubs-water quality
Herbicide invasives & exotics
Cutting trees for firewood
Plant existing lawn w/tree seedlings
Create tall grass–wildflower meadow
Wildlife food plots
Cutting logs to mill for lumber
Cutting trees for income
Water quality
Forest health
Forest health
Forest products
Forest establish
Forest products
Forest products
Follow-up Surveys from Two-Night
Workshops - 2008
 69% turned existing lawn into natural area.
 89% said natural areas impacted by woodland activities.
 54% developed a map of their property.
 Action: about 2/3 initiated a discussion with family or friends
about natural areas. 22% approached a neighbor.
 High percentages had completed woodland mgt activities and
39% wanted more in-depth info.
 Willingness to pay for others to perform woodland activities
very low.
Percentage of Green Industry Offered Woodland
Establishment/Water Quality
Planting trees or shrubs along drainage ways,
preparing, planting lawns with tree seedlings
Landscape Cont. &
Arborist /
Tree Service
Wildlife Management & Recreation
Establishing wildflower meadows, designing
or creating trails
Controlling vines in natural areas, spraying
exotic and invasive species
Wildlife Management
Building brush piles, establishing wildlife food
plots, creating tall grass meadow with less
frequent mowing or burning
Cutting trees for lumber, firewood, or for
Landscapes and Backyard Woodlots: Business
Opportunities for the Green Industry
Gettysburg, PA - November 11, 2008
Lessons Learned: Chicken ‘n Egg Problem
 Professionals realize they are not well qualified to make
management recommendations, but can implement them.
Can work with a forester.
 Green industry unsure of demand and potential profitability of
woodland practices, especially in economic climate. Need
success stories.
 Arborists not interested in logging activities due to differing
OSHA regulations.
Where to Go From Here?
 Revision of the WIYB guide is expected in early 2015.
 Webinar series once new guide released.
 Presentations and two-evening workshops as requested.
Even Later
 Peer to peer training for selected volunteers on WIYB
 Survey to identify interested loggers
 Training for foresters and loggers. Equipment?
 Identify green industry professionals interested in
implementing business model based on WIYB
Challenges to Overcome!
 Change in paradigm of forestry community – small
acreage owners are worth the effort. Why?
 Need to work on service provider problem.
 Use of small acreage harvesting equipment and
willingness of owners to engage.
 How to best market to this clientele?
Jonathan Kays
301-432-2767 x323
[email protected]
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