Mr. Aldunate • • • • TREATIES Similar to contracts Also known as:_________________, ________________, _____________________ □ As long as these express __________________ and are entered into by state governments they will be subject to __________________________________ Canada –US relations are governed by hundreds of treaties on a wide range of topics Canada is also bound by other treaties – both____________________ ( two-party) and _____________________________ (multiple party) Basic Treaty Principles: • Law of treaties- complex Based on ______________________ and ________________________ **A treaty must be , ______________, ____________and______________, and ____________ within each state that is a party to (has signed) the treaty 1. Treaty Negotiations: • may take place in _____________________________________ • must adhere to ___________________________________________ eg use of threats or force in violation of int’l principles invalidates treaties 2. Signing and Ratification: • Negotiators produce a _________________________________ and sign on behalf of their respective countries *But only to the effect that understandings have been reached and generally agreed upon and can only be temporary • To render a treaty __________________________ it must be ____________________ • Ratification is done once the government has had a chance to review the work of its won ambassadors. • Ratification may be______________________ or may be accompanied by a _______________. Reservations modifies a party’s obligation (reservations may be rejected by other parties) • Ratification process varies from country to country. Canada –done by ______________ and does not go through the_______________________. However important treaties may go through Parliament (ie Kyoto). 3. Implementation: • To implement a treaty means a nation state takes steps to make the terms part of the ____________________ ________________. • May require new legislation. • Problems may arise in Canada when treaty obligations call for the government to interfere with ________________________________. Disputes • Sometimes situations change and terms must be revisited or amended • Most treaties have provisions for dispute resolutions ( ie resolved by the International Court of Justice) or an ______________________________..