Latin American in the 20 C th

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Latin American in the 20th C
…THE STORY OF NEO-COLONIALISM?
Heavily Influenced by:
o
(1) Lingering 19thc Social Problems
(2) Global Developments
 1910-1920:
 Mexican Revolution
 1920-1950:
 Democracy Questioned Amidst Great Depression
 1950-1965:
 Cold War & USSR’s Progress Champions Communism
 1965-present:
 Cold War & USA’s Progress Champions Alternatives
Review
Historical Context for 20thc
Mexico 1300-1910
• Lower classes experience little
improvement in quality of life
• As a result, many celebrate indigenous
heritage
• Murals of 20thc reflect Mexico’s history &
perspective of 20thc
Teotihuacan
Mexican Revolution via Murals
•As early as 1000 BCE – Toltecs and
Maya adorned temples and public building
with murals. Murals told stories of
everyday life (Mexican Realism).
•Post-Spanish invasion = Christian murals
•Mexican Revolution = native Mexican
culture again
Aztecs called
themselves Mexica
Mountains and lake provide
natural defense of city
Tenochtitlan Marketplace
by Diego Rivera
1345 Aztecs
built
Tenochtitlan
at Lake
Texcoco
The city was an
important
religious center
filled with
pyramids topped
with temples
Snake on
cloth
represents
Quetzalcoatlgoddess of
creation
What raw
materials
would be
used to
create mats?
Petates, or
mats, were
woven out of
reed
Slave laborer is identified
by simple loin cloth
Moctezuma II 1502
Importance of family as
mother carries child in
rebozo
Conquest by Jose Orozco
Spanish Conquest
Hernan Cortes 1519
Aztecs surrender 1521
Winged angel shows
partnership of Church
and Cortes
Cortes is carrying an
iron sword – resting
on dismembered
bodies of Aztec
victim
Fire in background
represents
widespread
destruction of
Spanish soldiers
and smallpox.
Aztecs had no
metal to match
iron’s strength
What is this?
Small pox
decimated Aztecs
Cortes is a
machine…
symbolic of
European
technology
Video Clip: European Rule (United Streaming)
Absorption of the Indian by Jose Orozco
White European,
Hernan Cortes, sits
with an Indian
woman, Malinche.
Partnership
Symbolic of mixing of
two groups to create
mestizo people.
Mestizo make up
majority of Mexicans
today
Dead mestizo
shows
unhappiness
and illtreatment of
mestizo
Yet, restraint – many
Mexicans consider
Mayan Malinche a
traitor
Legend: Malinche
was given to Cortes
as a translator – later
they produced a son
Cross, Spanish
flag and sword
represent
colonization
Colonial Domination by Diego Rivera
Brutal
labor of
gold
mines
Yoked to
plow
Cuauhtemoc,
last Aztec
emperor,
bowing to
conquistadors
Huge land
grants given
to Spanish encomiendas
Conquistadores
use branding
iron to brand
Indian slave
Rivera attempted
to summarize
300 years
Bag of gold
Describe the European faces…
Euro faces drawn as animals
Total Indian
population
fell from 25
million to 1
million by
1700
Video Clip: Mexican Independence (United Streaming)
Fight for Liberty by Jose Orozco
Father Hidalgo (killed
1811) against
Spanish rule
Color red – death
and violence
Masses of people –
popularity of
independence
movement among
Indians and mestizos.
Hidalgo and Father
Morelos both executed
during war by Mexican
creoles (Spanish
decedents)
Creole Agustin Iturbide
then lead
independence from
Spain, but without
reforms of masses
Mexican
Independence
1810-1821
Criollos – Spanish
descent
Priest’s collar
and cross – role
of Church in
rebellion
What do you
think a fiery
machete
represent?
Machete is
symbol of
agriculture and
fire is revolt.
Independence in early 19thc
• Mexico is in political and
economic chaos after
independence
• Race/Class Structure Remains
–
–
–
–
Creoles
Mestizos
Indians
Africans
• Iturbede ousted in 1824 and
Mexico becomes a republic
• Santa Anna is the most
dominant political leader.
Mexican-American War
• Americans proclaim independence
of Texas—March 2, 1836
• French try to take Mexico in 1838.
• Mexican-American War (18461848)
– Mexico defeated.
– Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
on February 2, 1848.
• California, Texas, Arizona
and New Mexico to US.
• US pays Mexico
$15,000,000
• Property owners assured
can keep property
Liberalism Re-Emerges
th
in Late 19 c
• Benito Juarez elected
president in 1858
– confiscated Church
property
– suspended payment of
foreign debt in 1861.
• France, Great Britain, &
Spain protest
French occupy Mexico
• The French occupy Mexico in 1861
and capture Mexico City in 1863.
• Louis Napoleon makes Archduke
Maximillian Emperor (April 10, 1864)
– Maximillian was Austrian and never
understood Mexico
– There were many revolts
– Maximillian is captured and
executed with the rest of his family.
– Juarez is restored.
Juaraz 1831-1872 and the Fall of the Empire by Jose Orozco
Mexican flag –
patriotism of
middleclass
Violent
colors
Control of
Church
1855 –
overthrew
dictator Santa
Anna, began
reforms
Juarez - Zapotec Indian - first to bring legitimate reforms to Mexico
Machetes in
hands of
peasants
Juarez
leadership
came
against
European
intrusion
from Spain
and
France
1862 – Mexico conquered by France (Napoleon
III). Archduke Maximilian of Austria became
Emperor of Mexico. Cinco de Mayo = Mexican
victory, though French eventually won war.
1867- Juarez conquered Mexico City and executed Maximillian
Then continued his reforms until his death in 1872
Porfirio Diaz
• Order & progress
– Stability to industrialize
• Develops industry with foreign
capital
• Develops railroads with foreign
capital
• Oil Industry
– Standard Oil
– British Petroleum
Mexican Revolution
1910-1920
Repression – History and Perspective of Mexico
Repression during rule of Porfirio Diaz (34 year rule)
1876 Diaz came
to power –
dictator for 34
years.
Welcomed
foreign investors
Government
forces on
horse heavily
loaded with
weapons
Police
enforced
Diaz’ laws
Sickle represents farm workers
Note force used to control farmers (land fell
into hands of huge hacienda owners).




Foreign/Mexican owners discriminated against
Mexican Workers & Mexican Middle Class
Did nothing for poorest Mestizos
Neglected Education
Confiscated ejidos (common land)

Reign of Porfirio Díaz
Ruled as a dictator
 “New Creoles”
 Modernized Mexico
 Masses suppressed
 Working class wages declined
 95% of rural population did
not own any land


Porfirio Díaz (1876-1910)
Mestizo population grew
rapidly after 1850


By 1910 – large portions of Mexican society fed
up with Diaz
Political & social turmoil resulted


Displays…
 Political instability of 19th century
 Failure to fulfill promises of independence
 Failure to integrate poor & indigenous
Revolution was first and foremost a social
movement

1.
Cause: landlessness, oligarchy, foreign influence
Calls for Change: Diaz v. masses


2.
Moderate position pleases no one: Madero &
assassination

3.
4.
May 25, 1911 Diaz overthrown
Nov. 6, 1911 Francisco Madero, leader of revolt =
President
Madero unprepared & lack of land reforms led to open
rebellion
Radical efforts: Pancho Villa, Zapata
Moderates return: PRI

PRI – one party rule, limits foreign ownership,
incorporates workers & indigenous into party
Revolution against Porfirian (Porfirio Diaz) Dictatorship 1911 unseated Diaz
Peasants lost lands
and were forced to
work on large
haciendas for little
wage – conditions
near slavery
Government forces
used to coerce the
farm hands to work.
Peasants responded by rebelling against government.
Video Clip: Mexican Revolution (United Streaming)

Emiliano Zapata – organized peasants from
southern Mexico


“Land and Liberty”
Francisco “Pancho” Villa - organized peasants
from northern Mexico



Understood new technology (machine guns) & role
of media better than most
Villa raids New Mexico Farm on March 9, 1916.
Impacts the reaction to the Zimmerman Telegram

Radicals

Can be divided into 2 groups:
 Agraristas – groups led to revolt due primarily to agrarian
grievances. Thus, main goal was agrarian reform (e.g.
Zapata)
 Serranos – groups led to revolt due to threats to way of life,
varied based on region. Main goals included autonomy,
political control, cultural independence (e.g. Pancho Villa)

Both groups have common ground: they entered
into revolution due to expansion under the Porfiriato
The Trench by Jose Orozco
By 1910, dissatisfaction
of Diaz regime lead to
open revolt.
“Viva la Revolucion”
Three soldiers
mirroring the Christian
Trinity, add religious
element to the
movement
The carbines and
rifle reinforce the
atmosphere of
revolution
Mexican
Revolution
Red – violent and
bloody nature of
10-year long
revolution
Sharp angles
of bodies
inject drama



Ratified on January 31, 1917
Conferred strong powers to the president
Laid basis for land reform




No major redistribution until 1934
Government ownership of mineral &d water
resources
Placed restrictions on the church and clergy
New labor laws





Universal suffrage
Restrictions on Foreign Ownership
8 hour day
Minimum wage
Agrarian reform

Alvaro Obregón (1920-1924)

Built schools and encouraged nationalism
 Diego Rivera

Mexico becomes a single-party system

Party of Revolutionary Institutions (PRI)
 Dominated politics until 2000

Lázaro Cárdenas (1934-1940)

Redistributed 45 million acres of land
 253 million would be redistributed by 1984

Promoted economic nationalism
 Nationalized railroads (1937) and oil (1938)
Land Distribution by Diego Rivera
Nation Culture changed as Zapata and
Madero became heroes.
1910 – 2% owned land
1940 – 33% owned land (President
Lazaro Cardenas)
Madero became president 1911
Most tangible result of
revolution was the
redistribution of hacienda
land to landless
1917 Constitution
guaranteed lands and
factory workers protection



Over one million people died
Revolution lacked a plan, a philosophy,
intellectual leadership, or political parties
Farming, ranching, and mining economies
were destroyed


Oil industry improved during revolution
No major bank or newspaper survived
BENEFITS



Mexican middle class
Some Mexican workers
Greater integration of
poor & indigenous
Emphasized nationalism &
indigenism
 Seen in artistic movements
(Diego Rivera)


The PRI
Picks Mexican leaders
 Little Real Democracy

DOES NOT BENEFIT

Poorest Mexican
Agricultural Workers


Poorly paid
Illiteracy
Mural by Diego Rivera showing a
unified Mexican society
Democracy Questioned
Amidst Great Depression
1920-1950
Authoritarianism on the Rise
• Latin America’s export oriented economy hit
hard by Depression
• Governments not easily categorized
– Populist rhetoric of left
• Goals = social reform & improved conditions for
poor
– Fascist rhetoric of right
• Nationalism & strong government-industry
cooperation to foster industrialization
Economic Policy
• Import substitution policies were adopted by
most nations in Latin America from the 1930s
until the late 1980s.
• Adoption of ISI is attributed to the impact of the
Great Depression, when:
– Latin American countries, which exported primary
products (henequen, fruit, beef) and imported almost
all of the industrialized goods they consumed (radios,
appliances), were prevented from importing due to a
sharp decline in their foreign sales.
– This served as an incentive for the domestic
production of the goods they needed.
Import Substitution Defined
• Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI)
– a trade & economic policy based on the premise that
a country should attempt to reduce its foreign
dependency through the local production of
industrialized products
– ISI requires state-induced industrialization through
government spending
ISI in Latin America
• Efforts at ISI based on pragmatic choices to face
the economic limitations caused by recession
– Populist governments in Brazil (Vargas) & Argentina
(Peron) modeled Fascist Italy as inspiration of stateinduced industrialization
• Vargas & Perón saw industrialization (especially
steel production) as synonymous w/ "progress"
– Positivism which sought a "strong government" to
"modernize" society – played a major influence on
Latin American military thinking in the 20th century
Changes in Brazil’s Economy
• Interwar Years
– rapidly industrializing nation
– "the sleeping giant of the
Americas" & potential world
power
• Oligarchic “Old Republic”
dominated however
– landed interests resisted
change, industrialization,
urbanization, & other broad
interests of new middle class
Vargas-Brazil
• Dissatisfaction grew in
Brazil over oligarchic rule
– frustrated with the politics of
the cafe’ com leite (landed
elites in coffee and cattle
business)
– election of Washington Luis
denounced as fraudulent
(often the case in the period
known as the Old Republic
1889–1930).
• Vargas’ Liberal Alliance
forms to challenge the
political status quo
– won support of Brazil's
growing urban middle class
& military officers
– October 1930: bloodless coup
Vargas & ISI in Brazil
• Getúlio Vargas enters
– served as president & dictator
from 1930 to 1945 and
from 1951 to 1954
• Focused on state
interventionist policy to
stimulate economy
– Utilized tax breaks
– Utilized import quotas to expand
the domestic industrial base
• Linked pro-industrial policies
to nationalism
– Advocated heavy tariffs to
"perfect our manufacturers to
the point where it will become
unpatriotic to feed or clothe
ourselves with imported goods."
Vargas-Brazil
• Parallels European police
states in 1934
– new constitution w/
direct quasi-fascist
influences
• Fascist-style programs
serve two important aims
in Brazil
– stimulating industrial
growth
– suppressing communist
influence
Vargas-ISI in Brazil
• 1934 Constitution
– placed government authority over the private
economy
– Established a system of state-guided capitalism
aimed at industrialization & reducing foreign
dependency
– Promoted corporatism: a strategy to increase
industrial output utilizing a strong nationalist appeal &
co-opting workers' demands under the banner of
nationalism
• expanded social programs & set minimum wage
• but also placed stringent limits on union organizing
& "unauthorized" strikes.
Vargas & Brazil – example of
Authoritarianism 1920-1950
Populist-like
• "the father of the poor”
• expanded the electorate
• granted women's suffrage
Fascist-like
• whittled down the
autonomy of labor
• crushed dissent
Cold War & USSR Championing
Communism
1950-1965
Cold War
 Struggle between U.S. & USSR dictates government
forms in Latin Amer after WWII
 When USSR peaks = communism spread in Latin Amer
 Ex = Cuba
The Spanish-American War: 1898
Cuban “Independence” ?
Platt Amendment (1903)
1. Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with
foreign powers that would endanger its
independence.
2. The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if
necessary to maintain an efficient, independent
govt.
3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for
naval and coaling station.
4. Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.
American Soldiers in
Cuba in 1902
Fulgencio
Batista
Fidel Castro as a
Young
Revolutionary
Cuban “Young Pioneers”
What were some of Castro’s reforms??
Cuba is 90 Miles
from the Florida Coast
A Soviet “Client-State”
The
Cuban
Missile
Crisis:
October,
1962
Soviet-Cuban Construction
Soviet-Cuban Construction
Global Thermal Nuclear War?
Range of the Cuban Missiles
Cuban Refugees
The Cuban Adjustment
Act - 1966
Cuba today
• Remains the most rigidly communist nation
in world, along w/ North Korea
Cold War & USA Championing
Alternatives
1965-present
Cold War
 Struggle between U.S. & USSR dictates government
forms in Latin Amer after WWII
 When U.S. peaks = military dictators…then
democracy
 Remember: “the enemy of my enemy is my friend”
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