1. SPED 3700/5700 Chapter 6 Cognitive Model

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1. SPED 3700/5700
Chapter 6
Cognitive Model
2. Cognition
The way people think about and perceive the world, precipitate extreme emotions which in turn affect
behavior
“We can make ourselves crazy”
By changing how we think, we can make ourselves sane.
3. Cognition
Two basic ways people are taught to think differently,
By restructuring their cognitions and view of the world
By using new or different cognitive skills and strategies
4. Definition
The cognitive model is fairly recent and is a reaction to the behavioral model (external)
Cognitive psychologists believe that not only external events but also the way people construe the events
influence human behavior
There is a reciprocal relationship between thinking, feeling and behaving
5. Connection to Previous Models
Cognitive models assumes, as do the biophysical and psychodynamic schools, that covert human
processes are the primary cause of disturbance and disorders
Key component…..people’s perception and thinking
People’s beliefs and biased thinking about these external variables make them unhappy and/or fearful
6. Two Categories of Typical Thinking Patterns
Short-term Cognitive Processes
Expectations, appraisals, attributions that cause anxiety
Long-term Cognitive Process
Typically unconscious cognitive processes, such as a belief system that affects the short-term
processes
7. Cognitive Interventions
Each interventions assumes that faulty thinking patterns cause feelings that in turn influence behavior.
Cognitive Therapists “draw out, analyze, then change the individual’s thoughts, hoping to discover, and
then revise” Rosenberg & Seligman, 1989
8. Cognitive Therapies
Cognitive Restructuring
Reattribution training
Relaxation training
Positive imagery procedures
Assertiveness training
Corrective self-talk
Thought evaluation
Reverse role play and reframing thoughts
Problem-solving
9. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral
Self-instruction’
Self-monitoring
Self-evaluation
10. Evaluation
Questionnaires
Thought listing
Think-aloud
11. Education Applications
Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
SPED 3700/5700 chapter six notes 1
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Multiple Steps
Ideas p. 97
Everyone hates me…Prove that everyone hates me
Works best for mild disturbances, not for psychotic thinking, bi-polar
Minimal efficacy
Educational Applications
Interpersonal Problem Solving
Identify and define the problem
Generate many possible solutions
Analyze each solution in terms of possible immediate and future consequences, and the amount of
effort or resources to be expended. Also determine how the solution will affect others
Choose a solution and list the steps to the solution
Implement the chosen solution and evaluate the results
Nichols, 1996, Spivack et al., 1976
Educational Applications
Self-management or self-regulation
Self-instruction training
Self-monitoring (p. 153-156
Self-Evaluation
Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI)
Mnemonics
REBT
Packages (examples on p. 159)
SPED 3700/5700 chapter six notes 2
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