Unit 3
Scientific Revolution
• Previous beliefs
– Aristotle—earth was the center of the
– Church/Political Structure inhibited growth—
focused on salvation and daily mundane tasks
• Changed by
– Exposure to scientific success of Islam
– Growth of universities
Scientific Advances
• Copernicus—Heliocentric Theory: the sun
is the center of the universe
• Galileo—logically explained and proved
the heliocentric theory with his telescope
• Scientific Method
– Reason alone was not good enough
– Prove what mind concluded
– Demonstrate it to others—experiment
– Prove w/mathematical equations and
scientific instruments
Scientific Advances
• Brahe—observatory
• Bacon—inductive reasoning: reasoning
from detailed facts making generalizations
• Kepler—planetary motion
• Newton—calculus to prove theories
Science for Practical Use
• Labor saving devices
– Navigational devices, farming, weapons
(firearms), printing press
• Power sources from water and wind
Changes in Navigational
• Sternpost Rudder—improved steering
from Han China
• Lateen sails—triangular instead of squarecould sail against the wind
• Astrolabe—measured sun and stars
• Magnetic Compass—determine direction
from China
• Three-Masted Caravels—larger sails,
more cargo space
Long-Term Effects
• People began to question the church
• Some became atheists
• Some became deists—God is the great
clockmaker in the sky setting the world in
motion, then hands off
Long-Term Effects
• People stopped relying on supernatural
explanations—there must be a logical,
rational explanation
• People believed other things could be
explained through scientific method—
empirical research, building on previous
• Gave rise or led to the Enlightenment, or
Age of Reason