Managing a Hardwood forest for wildlife

Managing a Hardwood forest for wildlife
 The following are approximate percentages in order to
achieve a high biodiversity in a hardwood (deciduous
 Increased biodiversity = increased stability
 The highest diversity is obtained by creating various
succession stages which will also create edge
- 5 – 10% should have grassy opening. This benefits
groundhogs, bluebird, deer, etc. Insects provide for many
woodland birds (turkey)
- At least 20 % of the forest should be young trees and
shrubs to produce forage (food plants in the shrub and
floor layers) for grazing and browsing animals like deer
and grouse. Also provides cover.
- At least 40% of the trees should be mature and supply
mast (seeds, nuts, acorns, berries) for a wide variety of
wildlife. ex. Oaks and cherries – squirrels, deer, turkey,
seed eating birds
- 5 - 10 % of the trees in a forest should be old growth
(over-mature) for snags – 80 species of birds need snags
to nest - woodpeckers. Some animals require snags for
den trees – raccoons.
- Avoid excessive clear-cutting to prevent fragmentation
in forests containing species that require large forest
habitats. Use wildlife corridors (see diagram)
- Avoid creating monocultures (ecosystem with a single
species) – limits biodiversity