Chapter 15- Genetics Mendelian Basics Who is Mendel? What is genetics? Difference between allele, gene, and trait What is a hybrid? Homozygous (HH, hh), heterozygous (Hh) Dominant (H), recessive (h) Difference between phenotype and genotype True breeder/pure strain (P generation) Probability How does probability play a role in genetics Calculate probability of single and consecutive events occurring Interpret Punnett square based on probabilities. Apply rules of multiplication and addition Mendelian Genetics Filial Generations •What do the parents of the F1 generation look like, what is genotype and phenotype of F1 •What parents give rise to the F2 in Mendel’s experiments? •What do parents and offspring of F2 generation look like? Genotype of both? Mendelian Principles Dominance vs. recessive Law of segregation – how did Mendel test, what was the evidence? Law of independent assortment – how did Mendel test, what was the evidence? Why did Mendel start with true breeders? How do these principles relate to meiosis? Monohybrid and Dihybrid crosses •Perform both monohybrid and dihybrid crosses •Set up the crosses based on description of parents •Interpret results from crosses •Determine probabilities •Determine proportions of offspring with particular traits •Genotypic/phenotypic ratios Chapter 15 Genetics Chi-Square Other Patterns of Inheritance Codominance Incomplete Dominance Multiple alleles (phenotypes A, B, AB, O), (genotypes IAIA, IAi, IBIB, IBi, IAIB, ii) Know how to do problems for each type mentioned above What are polygenic traits (eye color, hair color, skin color, etc.) Environmental control of genes – ex. hydrangea flower color. Formula will be provided Calculate expected results based on information provided in question Apply equation for Chisquare (X2) and determine degrees of freedom Genetics Pedigrees •Interpret symbols – male, female, marriage, children generations, etc. •Determine genotype of specific individuals •Identify pattern of inheritance (autosomal dominant or recessive) Use X2 value in distribution table and determine if deviation dictates that hypothesis should be accepted or rejected based on probability values.