1-3 Studying Life BIOLOGY “bio” – life “logy” – the study of Biology is the science that seeks to understand the living world. What does it mean to be alive? Characteristics of Life Living things are made up of cells – Smallest units of an organism that is considered alive – Can be unicellular (bacteria) or multicellular (humans) Characteristics of Life Living things reproduce – Final product of reproduction = new organism – Asexual: formation of a new organism from one parent. • OFFSPRING IS A CLONE OF THE PARENT – Sexual: two cells from different parents unite to produce the 1st cell of new organism Characteristics of Life Living things are based on a universal genetic code – Based on 1 molecule that is almost identical in every organism on earth: DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Characteristics of Life Living things grow and develop – Growth: an increase in size of an organism – Development: progression through a life cycle Characteristics of Life Living things obtain and use energy – Metabolism: the sum of all chemical reactions occurring in an organism. – Autotroph: obtains energy from the sun – Heterotroph: obtains energy from consuming other organisms. Characteristics of Living Things Living things respond to environment ex. Find shelter from rain ex. Hibernating to survive the winter ex. Produce toxins to ward off predators Living things maintain a stable internal environment – Homeostasis: keeping internal condition stable relative to the external environment Characteristics of Living Things Living things evolve – Individuals DO NOT EVOLVE – Populations evolve over time Made of Cells The Characteristics of Life Reproduce Obtain and Use Materials and Energy Based on a Universal Genetic Code Change over time Grow and Develop Respond to their Environment Maintain a stable internal environment Is Yeast Alive? How do you know? Paleontology Branches of Biology Botany Zoology Entomology Ornithology Paleontology Branches of Biology Botany- Plants Anatomy-Structure Cell Biology- Cells Entomology – Insects Physiology- Processes (function) Zoology-Animals Genetics- Inheritance Paleontology – Prehistoric life Ornithology - Birds Major Themes of Biology 1. Science is a process We continue to learn, modify, and build on previous scientific work (adjust hypotheses, research, experimental designs) 2. There is interdependence in nature Many organisms have relationships of dependence (ecological relationships, on organism depends on the other for food, reproduction, shelter, etc.) 3. Regulation (homeostasis) Regulatory mechanisms manage and control life (help establish order/avoid disorganization) 4. Continuity and Change Some things are preserved while others change (made of cells, types of cells vary) 5. Science Technology and Society Technology is integrated with our lives (genetics, vaccines, forensics, etc.) 6. Energy is transferred and transformed Energy is neither created or destroyed but converted to different forms 7. Structure fits function The function of a biological mechanism is related to it’s purpose (bird beak/ flower) 8. Life evolves Species change over time Major Biological Themes Science is a Process Life evolves MAJOR THEMES Structure fits Function There is interdependence in nature Regulation (Homeostasis) Continuity and Change Energy is transferred and transformed Science, Technology and Society The Metric System – Units are in multiples of 10. – Ex: Ten centimeters = 1 decimeter – Also called the International System of Units (SI) Post Quiz Assignment . Use a sheet of paper from the front desk. 1.What do you think an atom looks like? Draw your version of a carbon atom Carbon has 6 protons, 6 electrons and 6 neutrons? 2. Water is a special chemical compound that is important to biology. What is the chemical formula for water? What things can you think of that are special about water?