Sentences

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Sentences
Sentences
 Objective  by the end of this section
you will be able to:
Identify the different parts of a sentence.
 Identify and properly use different types of
punctuation.
 Build strong and effective sentences.

Kinds of Sentences

The Fragment

The Run-on

Complete Sentences (3)



The Simple Sentence
The Compound Sentence
The Complex Sentence
The Fragment
A fragment is an incomplete sentence.
When reading a fragment, you know
something is missing.
Ex: The girl brushing her hair
How can this fragment be made into a
complete sentence?
Finishing the Fragment
Ex: The girl brushing her hair
1)
2)
3)
4)
The girl is brushing her hair.
The girl brushing her hair is pretty.
I saw the girl brushing her hair.
Is the girl brushing her hair?
Now you try it on the fragment sheet you have!
The Run-on
A run-on sentence has lots of ideas all trying to fit into one
complete sentence. It seems to go on forever and it
leaves the reader confused.
Example:
On my way to work I got a flat tire but I couldn’t change it myself so I
tied a white cloth to the antenna and waited inside my car until finally
a passing motorist stopped when he noticed the white cloth and
offered to change the tire for me even though he was in a hurry he
stopped because he is an individual who cares about other people.
How can we fix a run-on sentence?
How to…fix a run-on!
End Punctuation – shows the end of a complete
sentence.
The Period [ . ]

The period ends a complete sentence.
The Question Mark [ ? ]

The question mark ends a complete sentence that asks a question.
The Exclamation Mark [ ! ]

The exclamation mark ends a complete sentence that expresses a
strong feeling.
Finish the run-on sentence activity on the following sheet.
How to…fix a run-on!

The Conjunction – The conjunction is a word that is
used to connect two complete thoughts. Each of these is
a conjunction: and, but, or. In the following sentence,
two thoughts are connected but the conjunction but.
I would have helped change the tire, but I didn’t have
time to stop.
*REMEMBER*  You must use a comma [ , ] before each
conjunction.
LOOK !!
Do the attached
conjunction work now!
How to…fix a run-on!

The Semicolon – A semicolon [ ; ] is used to connect two related
sentences when they are not joined by a conjunction. A semicolon
can take the place of a conjunction.
Conjunction  He cares about other
people, and he always offers to help.
Semicolon  He cares about other people; he
always offers to help.
*REMEMBER*  The first word AFTER the semicolon begins with a
lower case (small) letter.
Do the attached work on semicolons now.
3 Kinds of Complete Sentences
1.
The Simple Sentence
2.
The Compound Sentence
3.
The Complex Sentence
The Simple Sentence
The simple sentence tells us who or what the sentence is
about.
The who or what (a person or a thing) is the SUBJECT of
the sentence.
A simple sentence also tells us what the subject DOES, or
that IT EXISTS, and WHERE IT IS.
Study the examples and answer the questions
on the attached “The Simple Sentence” worksheet.
The Compound Sentence
A Compound Sentence is made of two simple sentences that are
joined by a conjunction such as AND, BUT, OR.
Each of the following compound sentences contain two simple
sentences which are underlined. A comma is used before each
conjunction.
The girl pulled the cat’s tail, and the cat ran away.
She tried to pull the cat’s tail, but the cat ran away.
Would she like a cat, or would she rather have a dog?
Complete the attached exercise for “The Compound Sentence”
The Complex Sentence
A
complex sentence has a subordinate clause (a fragment) and
a main clause (it can stand alone as a complete sentence).
fragment + complete sentence = complex sentence
In the following examples, the subordinate clause comes first and the main
clause second; there is a COMMA between.
subordinate clause
(comma)
main clause
If I plan ahead, I can achieve all my goals.
When you leave the room, please close the door quietly.
Do the first part of “The Complex Sentence” worksheet and then of to
The Next Step
Complex Sentences Continued…

Notice the difference in these examples of
Complex Sentences:
You do NOT need to use a comma when a complex sentence begins
with a main clause.
Main clause
subordinate clause
I can achieve all my goals if I plan ahead.
Please close the door quietly when you leave the room.
Finish the remaining “The Complex Sentence” questions and move onto the
Composition Assignment
Punctuation Time !!
Period [ . ]

Use a period to show the end of a sentence.
Ex:


Hockey is a popular sport in Canada.

The federal government is based in Ottawa.
Use a period after certain abbreviations.
Ex:

B.C. is the province located on the West Coast.

Dr. Bethune was a Canadian who worked in China.

The company is located at 888 Bay St. in Toronto.

It is 4:00 p.m. in Halifax right now.
Question Mark

Use a question mark at the end of a sentence
to show a direct question.


How many provinces are there in Canada?
Note: do not use a question mark for indirect
questions.

The teacher asked the class a question. Do not ask
me why.
Exclamation Mark


Use an exclamation mark at the end of a
sentence to show surprise or excitement.
Ex:

We won the Stanley Cup!

The forest is on fire!
**CAUTION** Do not overuse exclamation marks.
Too many will take away the emphasis they are intended
for!
Comma [ , ]

Use a comma to show a pause in a sentence.


Use a comma with quotation marks to show what someone has said
directly.


"I can come today," she said, "but not tomorrow."
Use commas for listing three or more different things.


Therefore, we should write a letter to the prime minister.
Ontario, Quebec, and B.C. are the three biggest provinces.
Use commas around relative clauses that add extra information to a
sentence.

Emily Carr, who was born in 1871, was a great painter.
Quotation Marks


Use quotation marks to show what someone
has said directly.

The prime minister said, "We will win the election."

"I can come today," she said, "but not tomorrow."
You will also use quotation marks to create a
bibliography or “works cited”, as a part of your
research essay. We will cover that later though.
Colon [ : ]

Use a colon to introduce a list of things.


There are three positions in hockey: goalie, defence,
and forward.
Use a colon to introduce a long quotation.

The prime minister said: “We will fight. We will not
give up. We will win the next election."
Semicolon [ ; ]

Use a semicolon to join related sentences together.


The festival is very popular; people from all over the world visit
each year.
Use a semicolon in lists that already have commas.

The three biggest cities in Canada are Toronto, Ontario;
Montreal, Quebec; and Vancouver, B.C.
Dash [ - ]

Use a dash before a phrase that summarizes the idea of a sentence.


Use a dash before and after a phrase or list that adds extra information
in the middle of a sentence.


Mild, wet, and cloudy - these are the characteristics of weather in Vancouver.
The children - Pierre, Laura, and Ashley - went to the store.
Most Canadians - but not all - voted in the last election.
Use a dash to show that someone has been interrupted when
speaking.

The woman said, "I want to ask - " when the earthquake began to shake the
room.
Hyphen [ - ]



Use a hyphen to join two words that form one idea together.

sweet-smelling

fire-resistant
Use a hyphen to join prefixes to words.

anti-Canadian

non-contact
Use a hyphen when writing compound numbers.

one-quarter

twenty-three
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