Lesson One - Rise of Totalitarianism and Causes of WWII

Lesson One
Rise of Totalitarianism and Causes of WWII
 Students will define the term totalitarianism and connect it to the rising
governments in Italy and Germany prior to WWII
 Students will identify the circumstances in Italy, Germany and the Soviet
Union that provided for the rise of either fascist or communist totalitarian
dictatorships prior to WWII
 Students will identify both the fundamental & immediate causes of
WWII, including a definition of appeasement and how it failed at
preventing German aggression
Hand out WWII unit outline and go over with class.
Put up image of Picasso’s “Guernica”. Get students to write down what they
see that connects the art to war. Discuss Picasso’s attempt to display the
destruction by Germans of Guernica, Basque Country during the Spanish Civil
Write “totalitarian” on the board. As a class, come up with the definition.
“the total manner in which 20th century dictators could control their
populations – through modern technology that allowed them to seize power
and control populations they ruled”.
Student Chart – Italy, Germany, Spain and the Soviet Union. Use the
attached lecture notes to allow students to understand what was going on in
each country politically prior to the outbreak of WWII.
Summarize the Fundamental Causes of WWII as: a) The Treaty of
Versailles b) The Great Depression c) The rise of Hitler and the NAZI Party &
d) The failure of the League of Nations
Immediate Causes of WWII – “Appeasement” Power Point and Lecture
Notes. Students are to take down important information using the note
taking template
Appeasement Document Based Questions. Go through each source
with students. They then complete the accompanying questions.
Homework – Framework questions for this unit. Students receive the
package of questions that take them through the chapter. They can expect a
quick quiz on this information in the next two or three classes!
WWII unit outline
Student Chart – Italy, Germany and the Soviet Union
Appeasement and Nazi-Soviet Pact Lecture Notes and Student sheets.
Homework questions for chapter 5 and key to questions
-Italians were dissatisfied with their
democratic government
-blamed leaders for bad deal at the end of
-Benito Mussolini formed the Fascisti
Party and Marched on Rome,
threatening to overtake government
-the Blackshirts were his “thugs” that
convinced the gov’t to hand over power
without a single shot being fired!
-Italy invades Ethiopia in attempt to
fulfill its fascist imperial goals (1935)
-Stalin wanted to modernize economy
-obsessed with another country invading
the Soviet Union
-under his 5 Year Plan the gov’t would
eventually control all aspect of economy
-collectivization of farms ended all
private ownership
-invested in heavy industry so that he
could build a military able to defend
-introduced the Great Terror which saw
the execution of anyone who opposed the
state’s goals
-signed the NAZI-Soviet Pact as Stalin
realized the USSR would someday
become one of Germany’s targets
The Spanish Civil War - July
1936 to Franco's victory in
April 1939, leaving 190,000[ to
500,000 dead.
the war was marked by foreign
intervention on behalf of both
The nationalist side was
supported by Fascist Italy,
which sent the Corpo Truppe
Volontarie and later Nazi
Germany, which assisted with
the Condor Legion infamous for
their bombing of Guernica in
April 1937. Britain and France
strictly adhered to the arms
embargo, but the Republican
side was nonetheless supported
by volunteers fighting in the
International Brigades and the
Soviet Union. (See for example
Ken Loach's Land and
Hitler and Stalin used the war
as a testing ground for modern
-the Weimar Republic was the democratic gov’t formed at the end of WWI.
-Hyper-Inflation made their “mark” worthless (12 billion marks = 1 Can dollar!)
-the Great Depression plunged Germany into staggering unemployment
-the NAZIS stood for the following:
1. Extreme Nationalism – German’s sole reason for existence was to serve the state
2. Anti-Democracy – Hitler vowed to destroy it and turn Germany into a dictatorship
3. Anti-Semitism – blamed Germany’s difficulties on the Jews
4. Restore Military Might – this was VERY popular with Germans
1932 –Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. 1933 – passes The Enabling Act giving
him total power in Germany
1934 – Night of the Long Knives – 1 000 of Hitler’s opposition murdered
1933-1939 – Nuremburg Laws – laws against Jews (wear Star of David, lose professional
careers & property, can’t mingle with German populace, lost their citizenship)
1938 – Kristallnacht – Germans encouraged to attack Jews and their property
All human rights abolished
The Secret Police – Gestapo- became all-powerful
Socials 11
Name ___________________________
Block _______
Key Concepts :
total war
collective security totalitarianism
Axis & allies
Why was Prime Minister Mackenzie-King initially reluctant to involve
Canada in WWII? (page 127)
Provide examples of “total war”. (pages 132)
Distinguish between Allies and Axis (page 133)
Using the information in the text (pages 133-135), develop a “map and
notes” summary of Axis expansion to 1942. Include any italicized or
quotation mark – referenced terms from the text.
Socials 11
Name ___________________________
Block _______
The Dieppe Raid – read pages 142. Why was the raid unsuccessful? Was
it a disaster or learning experience? Justify your response.
Canadians at Sea/In the Air
read page 138 and 139 and make notes on our RCN, WREN’s,
corvettes, and Bomber Command
What role did the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) play during the
course of the war? (page 139)
Identify and describe three innovations created through advances in war
technology. (page 140-41)
Socials 11
Name ___________________________
Block _______
The term “Turn of the Tide” refers to the year 1942, when Axis powers (Italy,
German, Japan) went on the defensive and Allied powers (Britain, United States,
Soviet Union, Canada) went on the offensive. With the United States now in the
war, and making advances against the Japanese forces in the Pacific, it was now
time to turn toward defeating Hitler’s Fortress Europe. The Battle of the Atlantic
began to favour the Allied forces (see previous notes) and continuous bombing
of German factories by the U.S., Canadian and British bomber crews weakened
Germany’s ability to wage war. The “lessons of disaster” at Dieppe would be
used to plan the final assault on Nazi-occupied Europe.
Study the map: Allied advances on Germany, 1942-1945 on page 115. Pay
particular attention to the legend (key) and the arrow flow.
Why did British Prime Minister Churchill believe that Italy was the best
location to launch the invasion of Europe? Identify the famous battle
fought between Germans and Canadians in Italy (page 144).
Read the section on D-Day and Liberation and carefully study the DDay attack map on page 117. What two advantages did the Allied troops
have on D-Day that the Canadians did not have at Dieppe? (pages 146147). Identify the code name for the beach where the Canadians landed.
While the D-Day landing was successful, it would take almost a year to
defeat Hitler’s Germany. Briefly describe the role played by Canadian
troops in the liberation of the Netherlands. (page 147)
With the Soviet troops attacking from the east and the Americans,
Canadians and British from the wets, Hitler committed suicide in Berlin
and shortly after, Germany surrendered on May 7, 1945. Provide point
form notes from the section entitled The Holocaust Discovered (top
sections of pages 152).
What was the Manhattan Project and how would it eventually
contribute to the surrender of Japan? (page 149)
Data Based Questions
Name: ________________
Source A
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Winston Churchill
British Stateseman and writer
Quoted in Reader’s Digest, 1954
Source B
My good friends, this is the second time in our history that there has come
back from Germany to Downing Street peace with honour. I believe it is
peace for our time. We thank you from the bottom of our hearts. And now I
recommend you to go home and sleep quietly in your beds.
Neville Chamberlain
British politician, prime minister. speech, Sept. 30, 1938, Downing Street, London.
Source C
Thus Belial, with words clothed in reason’s garb,
Counseled ignoble ease, and peaceful sloth,
Not Peace.
John Milton (1600s)
English poet
Source D
Chamberlain’s visit to Hitler today may bring things to a head or may result
in a temporary postponement of what looks to me like an inevitable conflict
within the next five years.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882–1945), U.S. president. letter, Sept. 15, 1938, to William
Phillips, U.S. Ambassador to Italy
Source E
Trickling water, if not stopped, will become a mighty river.
Chinese philosopher (400 BC)
Chinese Proverb
Data Based Questions
Name: _____________
1. Is Source B a primary or secondary source? Justify your answer.
2. Assess the reliability of sources A, B and C in relation to
appeasement leading up to World War Two.
3. To what extent is source A corroborated by source C?
4. Which sources support the policy of appeasement? Which do not?
5. Using the sources provided and any other historical evidence assess
whether or not appeasement was a valid policy in the late 1930s.
Socials 11
Name ___________________________
Block _____
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Stage 5
Stage 6
Stage 7
What is appeasement?
When a country becomes aggressive, other countries give the aggressor what it
wants just to prevent another war
The Appeasement Crises - 1936-1939
As Hitler became more aggressive in his attempt to make Germany a powerful
international force, Britain and France practiced appeasement
Germany re-militarizes the Rhineland
March 1936 – Hitler’s troops enter the Rhineland, violating the Treaty of
 Britain and France did nothing to stop this
Germany annexes Austria
German troops entered Austria, making it part of Germany, once again violating
the Treaty of Versailles
 Once again, the European democracies did nothing to stop this
Appeasement in Czechoslovakia
Over 3 million Germans lived within the new borders of Czechoslovakia in the
western area called Sudetenland
Hitler threatened to invade this area in 1938
Britain and France panicked, feeling that any resistance by the Czechs would
lead to war
A conference was called at Munich, Germany
The wishes of the Czechs were completely ignored as Hitler received
Sudetenland in exchange for a guarantee to not go to war
Neville Chamberlain announces to Britain that he had achieved “peace in our
Hitler betrayed the agreement when he invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia on
March 15, 1939
 It was obvious that appeasement had failed and a major war was
The NAZI-Soviet Pact
The Soviet Union played no part in the appeasement process
Britain and France did not want to cooperate with Stalin’s communist regime
Hitler had always made it clear that he would attack communism in the USSR
The world was shocked when he signed a Non-Aggression Pact with Stalin
Both sides agreed to not attack each other and divide Poland between them
Both sides knew the other was lying, but needed this time to prepare for war
What is appeasement?
The Appeasement Crises - 1936-1939
Germany re-militarizes the Rhineland
Germany annexes Austria
Appeasement in Czechoslovakia