Mode of Action, Symptoms, and Treatments

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Mode of Action, Symptoms, and Treatments
OBJECTIVES/RATIONALE
An essential component of Pharmacology is the potential toxicity of medications and
their actions on the different body systems. The student will interpret technical material
related to pharmacology, and identify side effects, toxic effect, and adverse reactions of
drugs.
TEKS: 121.25 1C, 3B, 5D
TAKS
ELA 1, 3, 4, 5, 6
Science 2
KEY POINTS
I. Effects of Medication
A.
Therapeutic Effects
1.
Desired or intended effects refer to the primary purpose of prescribing
and administrating medication.
2.
Medication is a substance with therapeutic value used in treating a
disease or disorder.
B. Side Effects are unintended or secondary effects.
1.
May not be harmful.
2.
May permit the drug to be used for a secondary purpose.
C. Adverse Effects are undesired effects that may be harmful.
1.
may damage function of vital organs over prolonged time.
2.
may be minimized by reducing dosage or switching medication.
D.
Toxic Effects can be extremely harmful. Sometimes they can be life
threatening; implies drug poisoning.
1.
Poison is any substance which, when ingested, inhaled or absorbed, or
when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body, in
relatively small amounts, by its chemical action may cause damage to
structure or disturbance of function.
2.
toxin is a poison; frequently used to refer specifically to a protein
produced by some higher plants, certain animals, and pathogenic
bacteria, which is highly toxic for other living organisms. Such
substances are differentiated from the simple chemical poisons and
the vegetable alkaloids by their high molecular weight and
antigenicity.
3.
toxicity is the quality of being poisonous, especially the degree of
virulence of a toxic micron or of a poison.
4.
Drug must be stopped.
5.
Additionally may require supportive treatment and administration of
antidotes.
II.
Causes of Adverse and Toxic Effects
A.
All drugs are potentially dangerous
1.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
III.
A.
Many medications used for everyday illnesses or chronic diseases are
considered as harmless, especially if OTC.
2.
OTCs perceived generally to be safe since no prescription is required.
3.
Prescribed medications are assumed to be safe since physician would
not prescribe something that might harm the patient.
4.
Lack of understanding - drugs can cause toxicity even if taken as
directed
Overdose is taking more than prescribed or advised.
1.
Accidentally
2.
Purposeful
Age
1.
Child may be unable to metabolize at needed rate if dose too large,
e.g. parent giving adult dose of Tylenol.
2.
elderly, metabolism slowed down, organs (liver, kidneys) not working
at full capacity – drug levels can build up, eventually leading to toxic
levels.
Disease
1.
Weakens or impairs function of organs causing drugs not to be
metabolized at efficient rate, potentially leading to toxic buildup
a.
liver – cannot metabolize drugs at most efficient rate
b.
kidneys – cannot excrete substances at most efficient rate
2.
Some medications cause the organs to be weakened, sometimes to the
point of complete failure (may be temporary)
Drug Interactions
1.
may react with other drugs creating toxic substances when combined
2.
may react with another drug potentiating the effect.
3.
medication may interact with certain foods, leading to toxic buildup
a. slowing down metabolizing of drug
b. preventing metabolizing of drug
4.
combining with drug causing toxic substances to devel
Allergies - patient’s reactivity is altered due to previous contact with drug
acting as antigen or allergen.
1.
Unpredictable
a.
May develop after drug has already been taken for some time.
b.
May be idiosyncratic; no known reason as to why patient reacts
this way to drug.
2.
not dose-related
3.
can cause serious toxicity
4.
may be caused by combination with other substances, intentional or
not
5.
symptoms vary largely
Treatment
Overdose and Toxic Effect
1.
inducing emesis
2.
gastric lavage
3.
activated charcoal
4.
B.
C.
IV.
A.
B.
in some cases reducing drug levels may be sufficient, e.g. in
gentamycin
5.
reduce dosage and frequency
6.
intermittent discontinuation of drug until serum levels back within
normal range.
Allergies – the drug must be stopped or discontinued until sensitivity testing
is completed.
Supportive Treatment
1.
kidney dialysis in case of renal failure
2.
administration of antidotes
3.
mechanical ventilation
4.
administration of drug-binding agents, e.g. Digibind for digitalis
Prevention
education of patient
1.
expected effects
2.
symptoms of unexpected effects
3.
need for monitoring of serum levels, e.g.
a.
digitalis
b.
anticoagulants
c.
some antibiotics, e.g. gentamycin, amikacin
d.
lithium
e.
phenobarbitol
Safety
1.
child resistant containers or caps
2.
take medication as prescribed
ACTIVITIES
I.
II.
III.
Attend presentation of a representative from the local Poison Control Center.
Research, identify, and classify medications according to their potential toxic
effects on the different organs and body systems.
Create a table listing common toxic substances, specifically medications, the signs
and symptoms of toxicity, and their antidotes, including effective household
remedies.
MATERIALS NEEDED
Poison Control Center
Internet
Library
ASSESSMENT
Project Rubric
ACCOMMODATIONS
For reinforcement the student will design a poster depicting toxic dangers of medications
(prescription and non-prescription).
For enrichment the student will prepare and present a community education session on
the potential toxic effects of medications, the drugs most at risk, the signs and symptoms
to recognize, the ways to prevent toxicity, and the required interventions. Use any
audiovisual means of communication (video, public speaking, posters, pamphlets, slides,
etc.)
REFLECTIONS
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