Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 4(3): 235-238, 2012 ISSN: 2041-0778

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Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 4(3): 235-238, 2012

ISSN: 2041-0778

© Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2012

Submitted: June 27, 2011 Accepted: August 16, 2011 Published: April 05, 2012

Diversity of Marine Cyanobacteria from Three Mangrove Environment in Tamil

Nadu Coast, South East Coast of India

G. Silambarasan, T. Ramanathan and K. Kathiresan

Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608502, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract:

Marine cyanobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples, of the three mangroves viz

Parangipettai, Ariyankuppam and Mudasal odai mangroves south east coast of India. As many as 39

Cyanobacteria, belonging to 12 families were identified in which Oscillatoriaceae alone contributed (11). The species such as

Oscillatoria cortiana

,

Oscillatoria salina

,

Oscillatoria tenuis

,

Oscillatoria formosa

,

Lyngbya major

,

Lyngbya confervoides

,

Lyngbya majuscule

,

Lyngbya mesotricha

,

Phormidium stagnina

,

Plectonema terebrans

and

Plectonema putuale

and minimum in Synechococcaceae recorded only one species the species such as

Synechococcus elongatus

. Among the species

Synechocystis salina

,

Oscillatoria salina

,

Phormidium ambiguum

,

Phormidium tenue

,

Spirulina major

distributed all the mangroves.

Key words:

Mangroves, marine cyanobacteria, physico-chemical parameters

INTRODUCTION

Marine cyanobacteria have an ancient marine history which can be traced back almost three billion years ago in the fossil record during the precambrian period (Brock,

1973). They are important primary producer, and without them no animal populations including fishes could exist in natural waters (Post, 1999). They are also called as blue green algae and are widely distributed in the natural ecosystems such as land, soil, fresh water, oceans, estuarine salt lakes, salt marshes and also in hypersaline salt pans (Fogg

et al

., 1973). They are one of the important coastal resources and constitute integral and major component of the microbiota in mangrove ecosystem along the tropical coasts (Kathiresan, 2000;

Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001; Palaniselvam, 1995

Sakthivel, 2004). They colonize any submerged surface of sediments, roots, aerial roots, branches and trunk of mangroves (Zuberer and silver, 1978; Kathiresan and

Bingham, 2001; Palaniselvam, 1998). However, the cyanobacterial population of parangipettai mangroves in relation to the environmental characters is not explored properly. In this context the present investigation was aimed to study diversity of marine cyanobacteria in rhizosphere soil of three mangroves.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Sample collection, isolation and identification:

The cyanobacterial samples were collected from the three mangroves Located at Parangipettai mangroves (Latitude

11º29

!

N and Longitude 79º46

!

E), Mudasal Odai mangroves (Latitude 11º28

!

N and Long 79º46

!

E) and

Ariyankuppam mangroves (Latitude 11º54

79º50

!

N and Long

!

E) south east coast of India during the year October

2009. The mat was removed and suspended in a flask containing filtered sea water. The flask was sufficiently agitated to detach the sand particles were allowed to settle down and the supernatant consisting of Cyanobacteria was transferred to another 50 mL of filter sea water flask and isolated under the aseptic condition using the marine nutrient medium designed by (Rippka

et al

., 1979) and modified by (Palaniselvam, 1998). The Marine nutrient medium was prepared by adding the following ingredients.

Sea water

Distilled water

Magnesium sulphate

Sodium nitrate

Sodium carbonate

Dipotassium hydrogen

Orthophosphate

CaCl

2

Citric acid

Ferric ammonium citrate

Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid

A5 micronutrients

A5 micronutrients

Distilled water

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

750 mL

250 mL

0.04 g

0.75 g

0.02 g

0.003 g

0.003 g

0.0005 g

1 mL/L

500 mL

Corresponding Author:

G. Silambarasan, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608502 Tamil Nadu,

India

235

Boric acid

Manganous chloride

Zinc sulphate

Sodium molybdate

Copper sulphate

-

-

-

-

-

Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 4(3): 235-238, 2012

1.43 g

0.95 g

0.111 g

0.0086 g

0.0395 g parangipettai, ariyankuppam and mudasal odai mangroves

Parameters

Temperature

Salinity (ppt) pH

Parangipettai

32.5

31.5

8.10

Ariyankuppam

31.5

30.5

7.1

Mudasal odai

33.52

34.45

08.20

The cyanobacterial sample was collected and diluted using sterile water to 10

G

3

, 10

G

5

, and 10

G

5

, respectively.

(0.1 mL) of the diluent was inoculated using pore plate method. The culture was incubated at 25±2ºC under continue illumination (3,000 lux). Cyanobacterial species were identified using the standard references

(Desikachary, 1959; Humm and Wicks, 1980). All the study was conducted in our Laboratory, Faculty of Marine

Sciences, Annamalai University.

Analysis of physicochemical variables:

Temperature was measured by mercury thermometer 0.5ºC accuracy.

The pH was measured by using a calibrated pH pen

(Phep, Hanna instruments Mauritius Ltd., Portugal) with an accuracy of ±0.1. The salinity was measured by using a hand refractometer (Atago hand refractometer, Japan).

The physicochemical parameters of samples were analyzed using the standard methods (Strickland and

Parson, 1972).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The detailed of the environmental parameters prevailing in different mangrove waters is depicted in the

Table 1. The temperature was maximum with Mudasal odai mangroves (33.52) in and minimum in

Ariyankuppam mangroves (31.5). The pH was maximum in mudasal odai mangroves (8.20) and minimum in

Ariyankuppam mangroves (7.1). The salinity was maximum in (34.45) and minimum in Ariyankuppam mangroves (30.5). Marine cyanobacteria constitute integral and major component of the micro biota in every mangrove system (Potts, 1979, 1980; Hussain and Khoja,

1993; Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001; Palaniselvam and

Kathiresan, 2002; Sakthivel, 2004). Despite this seeming metabolic uniformity, their ecological diversity is remarkable; they occupy a very wide range of illuminated ecological niches in terrestrial, marine, and freshwater environments. Most marine forms grow along the shore as benthic vegetation in the zone between the high and low tide marks (Humm and Wicks, 1980; Ramachandran,

1982; Thajuddin, 1991b; Palaniselvam, 1995, 1998;

Ramachandra Rao, 1994; Thajuddin and Subramanian,

2002; Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001). However, the cyanobacteria of Parangipettai, Ariyankuppam and

Mudasal odai are not explored properly. The present chapter evaluates how the environment parameters of cyanobacteria. An attempt has also been made to delineate the subtle relationship between cyanobacteria and the environmental conditions within the mangrove ecosystem of Parangipettai, Ariyankuppam and Mudasal odai mangroves.

Non-heterocystous forms dominate in the saline environment and this finding is in accordance with many other workers (Thajuddin and Subaramanian, 1992;

Palaniselvam, 1998). Desikachary (1959) suggested that probably 20% of all known cyanobacteria occur in saline conditions and a majority of them are truly marine

(Thajuddin and Subramanian, 2002; Thajuddin and

Subramanian, 1991a; Nagarkar

et al

., 2000). However, it is difficult to strictly segregate most of the cyanobacteria into marine and freshwater species as can be done with other algal forms (Subramanian and Thajuddin, 1995).

Thajuddin and Subramanian (1992) observed that 75 of the species recorded from the southern east coast of India have originally been reported from freshwater sources by earlier workers (Biswas, 1949; Smith, 1950; Desikachary,

1959; Tilden, 1968; Humm and Wicks, 1980).

In three mangrove areas 39 species have been recorded in the present study (Table 2), which belongs to

12 families. Among the families maximum was recorded in Oscillatoriaceae (11). The species such as

Oscillatoria cortiana, Oscillatoria salina, Oscillatoria tenuis,

Oscillatoria formosa, Lyngbya major, Lyngbya confervoides, Lyngbya majuscule, Lyngbya mesotricha

,

Phormidium stagnina, Plectonema terebrans

and

Plectonema putuale

and minimum in Synechococcaceae recorded only one species the species such as

Synechococcus elongatus. Among the species

Synechocystis salina, Oscillatoria salina

,

Phormidium ambiguum

,

Phormidium tenue, Spirulina major

distributed all the mangrove areas.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Biotic and abiotic factors influence the distribution of cyanobacteria in marine environment. Basic knowledge of ecological factors is important for understanding the ecology and biodiversity of cyanobacteria. Bearing this in mind, marine cyanobaceria were studied from soil samples, of the south east coast of India. As many as 39

Cyanobacteria, belonging to 12 families were identified in which Oscillatoriaceae alone contributed (11) species and minimum in Synechococcaceae contributed only one species the species such as

Synechococcus elongatus

.

236

Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 4(3): 235-238, 2012

Table 2: Diversity of marine cyanobacteria in three mangroves viz parangipettai, ariyankuppam and mudasal odai of south east coast of India

Name of the species cyanobacteria

Name of mangroves

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Parangipettai Ariyankuppam Mudasal odai

Chroococcaceae

Chroococcus tenax (Kirchner) Hieron.

Chroococcus varius A. Br.

Chroococcus turgidus

(Kutzing) Nag

Dermocarpaceae

Dermocarpa leibleinea(Reinsch)Born.etThur.

+

Merismopediaceae

Aphanocapsa littoralis

Hansgirg +

Merismopedia aeruginea

Breb.

!

+

Synechocystis salina

Wislough

Microcystaceae

Gloecapsa aeruginosa

(Carm.) Kutz.

Microcystis litoralis

(Hansg)Forti

Microcystis aeruginosa

Kutz

Nostocaceae

Anabaena torulosa

Lagerh. ex Born et Flah.

Anbaena variabilis

Kutz. var. ellipsospora Fritsch

Anabaena spharica

Bornet et Flah.ault

+

+

+

!

!

+

+

+

!

Anabaena iyengarri

Bharadwaja

Oscillatoriaceae

+

Oscillatoria cortiana

Meneghini ex Gomont +

Oscillatoria salina

Biswas +

Oscillatoria tenuis

Ag. Ex Gomont

Oscillatoria formosa

Bory ex Gomont

Lyngbya major

Lyngbya confervoides

C.Ag.ex Gomont

+

+

+

+

Lyngbya majuscule

Harvey ex Gomont

Lyngbya mesotricha

Skuja

Phormidium stagnina

Plectonema terebrans

Bornet er Gomont

Plectonema putuale

(Kirchner) Hansgirg

+

+

!

+

!

Phormidiaceae

Phormidium ambiguum

Gomont

Phormidium tenue

(Menegh.) Gomont

Phormidium fragile

(Menegh.) Gomont.

Phormidium valderianum

(Delp.) Gomont

Trichodesmium erythraeum

Ehrenberg ex Gomont

Pseudanabaenaceae

Spirulina subsalsa

Oerst.ex Gomont

Spirulina major

Kutz.ex Gomant

Rivulariaceae

Calothrix brevissima

Calothrix bharadwajae

Dichothrix

bauriana (Grun.) Born.et Flash.

Scytonemataceae

Scytonema chiastum

Scytonema varium

Synechococcaceae

Synechococcus elongatus

Nag

Xenococcaceae

Myxosarcina concinna

Printz

+: Present; -: Absent

+

!

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

!

+

+

+

!

!

!

+

!

!

!

+

+

!

!

+

!

+

!

+

+

+

!

!

+

!

!

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!

!

+

!

+

+

!

+

+

!

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!

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!

+ +

+

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+

+

!

!

+

!

+

!

!

!

+

!

+

!

+

+

+

+

!

!

!

!

However, the cyanobacteria of Parangipettai,

Ariyankuppam and mudasal odai Mudasal Odai mangroves are not explored properly. An attempt has also been made to cyanobacterial diversity.

REFERENCES

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors are thankful to Prof. T. Balasubramanian,

Dean, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University for providing facilities.

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Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 4(3): 235-238, 2012

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