Review Topics and Questions for Geologic Processes and Hazards Lecture GEOLOGY & PLATE TECTONICS What is Geology and why do we need to invest in geological studies? List several internal and several external geologic processes and describe how they are associated with geologic hazards (and resources). What are the main differences between internal and external geologic processes? Think about examples of each. Know the general concepts of the Plate Tectonics Theory—where do most Earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building activity occur? Describe the three types of plate boundaries and give several geographical examples of each type. What types of topographic features are at each type of plate boundary? At what type of boundary are we (Cabrillo) located? Are shallow or deep earthquakes most common here, in the Coast Range of California? EARTHQUAKES What is an earthquake and how are earthquake waves recorded and measured? How is an earthquake’s epicenter determined? What is focus? What are the 2 types of Surface Waves and describe their motion. What are the 2 types of Body Waves and describe their motion. What is liquefaction? What types of rock or sediment are prone to liquefaction? What 4 important factors are involved with the amount of damage or loss of life that may occur from an earthquake? What can be done to prevent property damage and/or loss of life from earthquakes? How can we reduce tsunami hazards? VOLCANOES Where are most volcanoes located? What are the benefits, hazards? Geologists are improving on predicting an imminent volcanic eruption. What are the signs they look for to make such a prediction? What can be done to prevent property damage and/or loss of life from volcanoes? How can a volcanic Island like Hawaii cause a mega-tsunami? MASS WASTING Why are the Santa Cruz Mountains (and all coastal CA Mountains) very susceptible to Mass Wasting or Mass movement? What might cause mass wasting? What human activities and natural conditions can trigger Mass Wasting?