ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Lloyd N. Morrisett, President of the Markle Foundation at the time this work was begun, and to Zoe Baird, his successor, for their support and counsel throughout this project. Bruce C. Vladeck, Administrator of HCFA at the time this study was begun, generously gave us permission to pursue our case study of HCFA’s communications with Medicare beneficiaries. Joyce Somsak and Megan Arts of the HCFA staff were instrumental in guiding us to the many other staff members who patiently and clearly explained the workings of the Medicare program and the vast flow of communications related to it. Staff members at ten HCFA contractors also shared with us their procedures for managing the Medicare program on a day-to-day basis. We are grateful to all of them. At California EDD, our request to identify and explore areas of individualized communications for potential case study purposes met with a positive response from Josetta Bull, Deputy Director, Information Technology Branch, and Deborah Bronow, Assistant Deputy Director, Unemployment Insurance Division. They facilitated meetings and made contacts for us with appropriate individuals throughout the department. We are especially grateful to Talbott Smith, Chief of the Administrative, Workforce and Enterprise Solutions Section in the Information Systems Division, and to Gretchen Jung, then Chief of the Oversight, Data and Support Section of the Unemployment Insurance Division, for giving us considerable amounts of their time and attention, providing us with needed data and documentation, and helping us to schedule appointments with representatives of other units over numerous visits to EDD. We ap- xi xii Citizens, Computers, and Connectivity: A Review of Trends preciate as well the cooperation of the many other EDD unit representatives without whose assistance we could not have completed the case study. Staff at other government agencies also offered insights into the potential for greater use of e-mail and the potential pitfalls that lie along the way. Especially helpful were Leo Campbell of the United States Postal Service and John Sabo of the Social Security Administration. Among our RAND colleagues, Joanna Heilbrunn provided invaluable assistance, collecting much of the information for the HCFA case study and interviewing HCFA contractors. Maria Sanchez did much of the basic work that led to our survey of current government use of e-mail and the Internet. Ashin Rastegar assisted with the analysis of access to e-mail. Finally, we are indebted to Ingo Vogelsang of the Boston University Economics Department, Lee S. Sproull of the Boston University School of Management, and Norman G. Litell, Director of Corporate Risk Management at Visa U.S.A., Inc., for insightful and constructive reviews of early drafts of this report. Any errors in fact or judgment that remain in this report despite the efforts of all those noted above are, of course, our responsibility.