Quick guide to referencing: Vancouver

Quick guide to referencing: Vancouver
Reference type
Reference notes
How to cite
Only include the edition if it is not
the first edition.
Lifelong learning is a key component of an effective
learning society (1).
If there is more than one place of
publication, cite the first.
“Quotation” (1, p78).
1. Jarvis P. Globalisation, lifelong learning and
the learning society: sociological perspectives.
London; New York: Routledge; 2007.
Journal article:
2. Altbach PG, Knight J. The internationalization
of higher education: Motivations and realities.
Journal of studies in international education.
You can reference both print articles The internationalization of higher education is very
and their electronic equivalents this important (2).
“Quotation” (2, p292).
If the article only exists in an
electronic format, volume, issue and
/or page numbers may not be
available. You will also need to add
in the URL or DOI and the date
Edited book:
3. Dale R, Robertson SL, editors. Globalisation
and europeanisation in education. Oxford:
Symposium Books; 2009.
Indicate that the book is edited.
We are witnessing an increasing Europeanisation of
the education system (3).
“Quotation” (3, p45).
Quick guide to referencing: Vancouver
Electronic book:
Indicate that this is an e-book by
4. Zajda JI. International handbook on
using [online].
globalisation, education and policy
Include the URL and access date.
research global pedagogies and policies.
Dordrecht: Springer; 2005. Available from:
Developing global research pedagogies will become
increasingly important (4).
“Quotation” (4, p44).
Book chapter:
5. Twigg C. Overseas students in higher
education. In: Cullingford C, Gunn S, editors.
Globalisation, education and culture shock.
Aldershot: Ashgate Pub.; 2005. p. 86-106.
Give the chapter details followed by
the book details. The page numbers
of the chapter go at the end.
Overseas students are vital to success of higher
education (5).
“Quotation” (5, p92)
6. Varghese NV. Globalization of higher
education and cross-border student mobility. .
Paris: 2008.
You may find that a report does not
have individual authors but is
written by an organization. This is a
corporate author, for example, The
University of Warwick.
Always use the full corporate author
The corporate author is often the
publisher as well.
Encouraging cross-border student mobility is
essential (6).
“Quotation” (6, p5).
Quick guide to referencing: Vancouver
Web page:
7. Coughlan S. Iran's students to have US
online courses 2014 [09 September
2014]. Available here:
If there is no author, use Anon.
Remember, it may be a corporate
Iranian students can now access some US online
courses (7).
“Quotation” (7, paragraph 3)
If there are no page numbers,
indicate the paragraph.
General notes:
If you are unsure about the accuracy of any part of the reference or information is missing but you can make an “educated guess”, i.e., the year of
publication or the publisher, you can put square brackets [ ] around the information to indicate that you are not 100% certain about this information.