Interwar Years

Interwar Years
Army in Interwar Years
• Continuing struggle in period over nature of
– Civilian or professional
• Budget cutting of 1920’s strips army of
• Air Service and Chemical warfare given
equal status
Bonus Expeditionary Force(1932)
• Use of Army in a Civil Disturbance
• Chief of Staff Douglas McArthur
– Sends out tanks, cavalry and infantry
– Show military can go overboard
• Fear of revolution
Air Power 1920-1939
• Chief advocate of air power—Billy Mitchell
– Expanded on lessons of World War I
– Pushed for air development
• Budget cut following war
– Takes case to the public
– Agitates for test to prove strength of airpower
• Says Battleships will be useless
• Upsets Navy leadership
• Navy gives into pressure
Provisional Air Brigade
• Attacks anchored German ships
– Mitchell had to develop large bombs and
navigational techniques for the attack
– Sinks ships
– Navy rejects test-flaws in attack
• Continued public appeals about lack of air
– Court-marshaled
– Brought airpower into the public eye
Strategic Airpower
• Doctrine emerges before technology
– Precision bombing of enemy industry
• US is long way from capable
– Air Mail contract in 1930’s
• Can’t do long-distance flying in day or night
• Development of two planes signal change
– B-10-all metal, two engine monoplane
– B-17-four engine bomber
Navy in Interwar Years
• Washington Naval Conference of 1921
– Naval Disarmament
• Restrictions of Battleships and cruisers
• No restrictions on Aircraft Carriers
• Sets ratios-makes US vulnerable in the Pacific
• Cutbacks through the era in 1920’s
– Falls behind the Japanese and British in active
• Aviation is one area that does grow
– USS Langley-Converted Coaler
– USS Saratoga and Lexington
• Vision still of scouting and observation
• In 1930’s, Navy starts to rebuild
– Way of helping Depression
– Vinson-Trammell Act(1933)
– Helps in early stages of World War II
• Period of significant doctrinal shift
• Still continue old mission
– Police force in Latin America and Far East
• Commandant John LeJeune feels new role needed
World War I use was not typical
Pushes to develop amphibious capability
Sees next war with Japan
Earl Ellis--theorist
Marines build prototype landing craft-Higgins Boat
• Landing Operations Manual-1934