Homework and Class Work for ENG 100 Thursday, Sept. 6, 2012 1st Pd: 3rd Pd: 5th Pd: Matt Catron, Ivy Creahan, Luke Lamb, Leeann Malone, Josie Slone INDEPENDENT WORK: Are these hard evidence or rational appeals? Remember, not all cases are clear-cut. Defend your answer. 1. The bigger they are, the harder they fall. 2. Drunk drivers are involved in more than 50 percent of traffic deaths. 3. DNA tests of skin found under the victim’s fingernails suggest that the defendant was responsible for the assault. Turn in for credit. CLASSWORK: Class Notes: Syllogism – logical argument involving three propositions: a formal deductive argument made up of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. "All birds have feathers, penguins are birds, therefore penguins have feathers." deductive reasoning: reasoning from the general to the specific example of deduction: an example of deductive reasoning Enthymeme – A figure of reasoning in which one or more statements of a syllogism (a three-pronged deductive argument) is/are left out of the configuration; an abbreviated syllogism or truncated deductive argument in which one or more premises, or, the conclusion is/are omitted. There are various kinds of syllogisms and the formal treatment of them is rather technical. However, all syllogisms are similar in that they contain at least three statements -two premises followed by a conclusion. Ex1: - All humans are mortal. (major premise) - Michael is human. (minor premise) -Michael is mortal. (conclusion) The syllogism above would be rendered an enthymeme simply by maintaining that "Michael is mortal because he's human" (leaving out the major premise). Or put differently, "Since all humans are mortal, Michael is therefore mortal" (leaving out the minor premise). Statements may be strategically excluded in an enthymeme because they are too obvious or because revealing them might damage the force of the argument. Yet another reason to exclude a premise or conclusion is to let the audience infer it. The idea here is that audiences who have to draw out premises or conclusions for themselves are more likely to be persuaded by the overall argument. Ex2: - Those who study rhetoric speak eloquently. (major premise) - Susan studies rhetoric. (minor premise) -Susan speaks eloquently. (conclusion) The enthymeme here might do well to exclude the conclusion and let the audience infer it if the goal of the argument were to convince the audience that Susan speaks eloquently. Activity One: Take a look at comedian Rita Rudner's fairly complicated enthymematic argument: I was going to have cosmetic surgery until I noticed that the doctor's office was full of portraits of Picasso. Analyze this enthymeme and answer the following questions: 1. What information is left implicit? 2. What inference or conclusion does Rudner ask us to draw from this enthymeme? 3. What causes the humor in this statement? Turn in for credit. QUIZ: Schedule a time to make up reading quiz for credit. Activity Two: Complete the Not Just Words activity on page 71. Turn in your answers for credit HOMEWORK: See instructor to draw a number for the completion of one of the exercises on page 94, #3 or #4. Complete assignment in such a way that it may be presented to the class for discussion.