# Controlled Motion NOTES Physics Vista Overview

```Physics Vista
NOTES
Controlled Motion
Overview
Students investigate Newton’s Laws of Motion and relate them to everyday
activities.
General Time Frame
5 lessons (55 minutes each)
Background Information for the Vista
As noted in the chart below, students have prior knowledge of force and
motion from grades 6 through 8.
6.6(A)(B)
7.6(A)(B)
8.7(A)
The following learning experiences enable students to prepare a laboratory
analysis of a frictionless object after investigating its mechanics. The students
obtain information about the application of Newton’s Laws of Motion to
everyday experiences using the Internet. Through their investigation, the
students begin to correct misconceptions about motion, and develop an
understanding of classic Newtonian motion.
Teacher note: Students may have different experiences with the
Internet. Teachers should be familiar with each Internet site before
allowing the students to proceed with an activity. Web pages included
in this vista ask students a variety of questions. Teachers are
encouraged to determine which questions are appropriate for their
students.
Students may harbor many misconceptions about motion. Teachers should be
aware of common misconceptions and not assume that students understand
the concepts based on their correct usage of the terms. Everyday experiences
and language suggest that objects follow patterns that are contrary to
Newtonian laws. For instance, one misconception is that constant motion
requires a constant force. Teachers need to determine what the students think
they already understand and then clarify the misconceptions by teaching
correct scientific principles.
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Newton’s Laws of Motion
NOTES
Sir Isaac Newton, born in 1642, made crucial advances needed to complete
the study and understanding of motion. His classic work, the Principia
Mathematica printed in Latin in 1687, contained four laws set to change the
way the world viewed mechanical motion––three laws of motion and the
universal law of gravitation.
Newton’s first law of motion, or the Law of Inertia, states that if a body is
at rest and there is no outside unbalanced force acting on it, the body will
remain at rest. If a body is in motion and there is no outside unbalanced force
acting on it, the body will continue to move at constant speed in a straight
line. Whenever an outside unbalanced force acts on a body, the velocity of the
body will change; that is, the body will undergo accelerated motion if and
only if the force is greater than the object’s inertia.
Newton’s second law of motion states that if a force accelerates a body, then a
force twice as great would give that body twice the acceleration. This fact can
be stated as follows: the acceleration of a given mass is directly proportional to
the applied force.
If one body has twice the mass of a second body, and the same force acts on
each body, the acceleration of the first body is one-half as great as that of the
second body. In other words, the acceleration produced in a body by a given
force is inversely proportional to the mass of that body.
Newton’s third law of motion states that forces always appear in pairs; for
every action force of a body A on a body B, there is a reaction force by B on A
that is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.
The law of universal gravitation states that all objects in the universe attract
each other. The forces between two spheres or particles are proportional to
the products of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their
separation. The mass (m) of an object is the same everywhere in the universe;
its weight (w = mg) depends on the acceleration due to gravity (g) at the
object’s location.
Materials
Printed Materials Included in this Vista:
Controlled Motion Vista TEKS Correlation Chart
Classic Newton investigation pages
Physics of Sports investigation pages
Virtual Roller Coaster investigation pages
Unidentified Flying Compact Disk investigation pages
Pre- and post-test questions
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Materials for the Teacher to Gather:
Each learning experience has a list of all necessary equipment and materials.
However, it is not the intention of TEXTEAMS to dictate the types and
quantities of materials/equipment to use for the learning experiences. All the
materials/equipment that are listed in the learning experiences are suggestions.
Teacher’s notes give specific instructions for areas where the author has
experienced problems. Substitutions for materials/equipment should be based
on local budgets, availability, and facilities.
The Charles A. Dana Center at UT Austin
NOTES
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NOTES
4
Correlation to the National Science Education Standards
(NSES)
9–12
Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
9–12
9–12
Motions and forces
K–12
Systems, order, and organization
K–12
Constancy, change, and measurement
Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
USED FOR LEARNING EXPERIENCES 1–3
Classic Newton:
1) http://www.physicsclassroom.com
2) http://library.thinkquest.org/10796/ch4/ch4.htm
3) http://library.thinkquest.org/3042/linear_quiz.html
Physics of Sports:
1) http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/VideoTestbed/Projects/Physics/page_1.html
2) http://www.exploratorium.edu/sports/index.html
Virtual Roller Coaster:
1) http://coasters.eb.com/ride.html
2) http://www.learner.org/exhibits/parkphysics/coaster/
3) http://www.funderstanding.com/k12/coaster/
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Classic Newton
NOTES
Learning Experience 1
Description:
This learning experience is designed to help students understand the TEKS
concepts of Newton’s Laws of Motion and relate them to everyday situations.
Time Frame:
55 minutes
Materials:
Computer with Internet access (1 per student group)
Paper/note cards (20 per student group)
Newtonian Demonstrator (1 for the teacher)
Student laboratory notebook (1 per student)
Classic Newton investigation pages (included in the Blackline Masters section
at the end of this vista)
each student computer.
2. Prepare copies of the Classic Newton investigation pages for each
student group.
Background Information for the Teacher:
Some Web pages use the term deceleration to denote negative acceleration. The
accepted term negative acceleration is used to indicate decreasing velocity over a
period of time. Students need to be aware that deceleration is not an appropriate
physics term.
links at the bottom of each Web page. Encourage them to explore the tutorial
when necessary, and then use the BACK navigating button at the top of the
Procedures:
Teacher note: This investigation should be conducted using student groups of
two students per group.
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NOTES
1. Have students complete the Classic Newton investigation pages
as they navigate the Internet sites. Answers to questions should be
written in the students’ journals.
2. Place Newtonian Demonstrator on overhead to enhance viewing by
students. Allow students time to digest motion and ask questions. If
some students ask to assist, allow as necessary.
3. To prepare for the Summative Assessment, instruct students that as
you demonstrate the motion of the Newtonian Demonstrator, they
are to explain where each of Newton’s laws are being demonstrated.
Suggestions for demonstration:
a) Release one sphere. Allow students to become familiar with its basic
motion.
b) Release same sphere from different heights.
c) Catch sphere during motion. Reaction movement should cease.
d) Release two spheres (three spheres, etc.) from various heights.
e) Allow motion to slow. Students will notice spheres hitting even after
sound dissipates.
4. Highlighted vocabulary terms on the investigation pages should
be used to make verbal-visual word association cards. Post all cards
from each student group and allow time to discuss students’ personal
associations and non-examples. Cards obtaining student consensus
should remain on the classroom word wall.
Teacher note: Verbal-Visual Word Association Card directions:
1) Divide a sheet of paper or a note card into four sections.
2) Write the vocabulary word in the top left hand corner and its definition in the
bottom left hand corner.
3) Draw a picture associated with a personal connection in the top right hand
corner.
4) Provide a non-example or a sentence using the word in the bottom right hand
corner
Formative Assessment: Monitor students as they complete the Classic
Newton investigation pages. Provide feedback on the quality of their
Newtonian Demonstrator description and their word association cards.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Controlled Motion Scenario
As a product specialist team for Hovercrafts, Inc., it is your job to research all new product lines prior to marketing.
The CEO has plans to send down various prototypes of a new toy with plans of mass distribution by the next
holiday season.Your task will be to investigate the design and mechanics of each prototype and make suggestions for
changes and uses, so that the public relations department can begin developing the campaign.
While your team waits on the prototypes, you are required to do research on kinematics and how it relates to
sports and other entertainment. This research will provide the necessary background information for the required
components of the production proposal.
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Classic Newton
Use the outline below to navigate through the Web pages. Use the specific links to answer each of the questions.
each page, but return to the original page by using the BACK navigating function.
Part I: Kinematics
1. Log on to the Physics Classroom located at: http://www.physicsclassroom.com
2. CLICK on “Multimedia Physics Studio.”
3. CLICK on “1-D Kinematics,” then on “Average vs. Instantaneous Speed” (located in the side bar).
a. Define average speed.
b. Why is speed a scalar quantity?
c. How is speed calculated?
d. What is the difference between speed and velocity?
4. CLICK on “Hot Wheel Track” (located in the side bar).
a. Define acceleration.
b. How is acceleration calculated?
c. Why is acceleration a vector quantity?
d. What are the three ways an object can accelerate?
5. CLICK on “The Stoplight” (located in the side bar).
a. Work through the problems on the screen. Check answers.
6. CLICK on “Multimedia Physics Studio,” “Newton’s Laws,” and “The Car and the Wall” (located in the side bar).
a. Why is Newton’s First Law of Motion called the Law of Inertia?
b. Who was the first person to develop the concept of inertia?
c. Describe one application of Newton’s First Law of Motion.
d. Use Newton’s First Law of Motion to explain the purpose of seat belts.
7. CLICK “The Motorcyclist” (located in the side bar).
a. Why are motorcycles not equipped with seat belts?
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
8. CLICK on “The Elephant and Feather—Free Fall” (located in the side bar).
b. Define free-fall.
c. Why is force a vector quantity?
d. Do all objects fall with the same rate of acceleration? Explain.
e. Does a person diet to lose mass or to lose weight? Explain.
f.
Why does the elephant hit the ground at the same time as the feather during the free fall?
9. CLICK on “The Elephant and Feather—Air Resistance” (located in the side bar).
b. Is a force needed to keep an object in motion? Explain.
c. Define air resistance.
d. Define terminal velocity.
e. Why does the elephant hit the ground first in the presence of air resistance? (Hint: Use the link “The
Skydiver” if assistance is needed in answering this question.)
10. CLICK on “Physics Tutorial,” “Momentum and Its Conservation Lesson #2,” and “Momentum Conservation
Principle” (located in the side bar).
a. Define momentum.
b. How is momentum calculated?
c. Work through the “CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING” questions.
11. CLICK on “Physics Tutorial,” and “Newton’s Laws, Lesson #4” (located in the side bar).
a. Work through the “CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING” questions.
b. An insect strikes a windshield while you are driving a car. Which of the two forces is greater: the insect
hitting the windshield or the windshield hitting the insect?
12. CLICK on “Identifying Action and Reaction Force Pairs” (located in the side bar).
a. Work through the “CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING” questions.
b. Cite an example of Newton’s third law.
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Part II:Think Quest Library
1. Log on to http://library.thinkquest.org/10796/ch4/ch4.htm
CLICK on Blue Button “VISIT SITE”
N
N
m/s2
N
kg
2. Log on to http://library.thinkquest.org/3042/linear_quiz.html
CLICK on Blue Button “VISIT SITE”
notebook.
Part III: Newtonian Demonstrator
As your teacher uses a Newtonian Demonstrator, apply Newton’s three laws to explain its motion. Record
Part IV:Word Wall
Create Verbal-Visual Word Association cards for each of the vocabulary terms from the activity.
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WORD
PICTURE
DEFINITION
NON-EXAMPLE
Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Physics of Sports
NOTES
Learning Experience 2
Description:
This learning experience is designed to help students understand the
application of Newton’s Laws to sports activities.
Time Frame:
55 minutes
Materials:
Computer with Internet access (1 per student group)
Student laboratory notebook (1 per student)
Physics of Sports investigation pages (included in the Blackline Masters
section at the end of this vista)
Prepare copies of the Physics of Sports investigation pages for each student
group.
Background Information for the Teacher:
Gravity is the force of attraction between objects in the universe. Weight is the
measure of the force of gravity on an object. On Earth, acceleration due to
gravity is 9.8 m/s2. Objects on the moon accelerate at 1/6 that rate or
1.6 m/s2, since the moon is 1/6 the mass of the Earth. Mars is slightly smaller
in mass than the Earth, creating acceleration due to gravity of 3.7m/s2. Jupiter
is more than 2.67 times the mass of the Earth, creating acceleration due to
gravity of 26 m/s2.
Procedures:
Teacher note: This investigation should be conducted using groups of
two students per group.
1. Have students complete the Physics of Sports investigation pages.
2. Each group of students is to choose a sport and organize material to
present to the class.
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NOTES
Teacher note: No two groups should choose the same sport to
present to the class.
Formative Assessment: As they complete the Physics of Sports investigation
pages, monitor the depth of the students’ knowledge of Newton’s three laws in
their chosen sports.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Physics of Sports
Use the outline below to navigate through the Web pages. Use the specific links to answer each of the questions and
each page, but return to the original page by using the BACK navigating function.
Each group is to use the information from the sites and prepare an oral presentation on how Newton’s Laws are
represented in a chosen sport.
PART I:
1. Log on to the Physics of Sports Connection located at:
http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/VideoTestbed/Projects/Physics/page_1.html
2. Review Newton’s Laws by navigating through each link, using the BACK button to return to page 1 between
laws.
a. CLICK on ”Newton’s First Law.”
b. CLICK on “Newton’s Second Law.”
c. CLICK on “Newton’s Third Law.”
3. CLICK on “Universal Gravitation.”
a. Draw the path in your laboratory notebook that the discus will follow after it leaves an athlete’s hand, and
explain what forces cause the shape of the path.
4. CLICK on “Cyberbody Tour.”
a. CLICK on “Musculoskeletal System,” “Joint,” “Patella.”
b. Navigate through each sport and view the video clips
i.
CLICK on “Baseball.” Apply Newton’s Laws to the baseball clip.
ii. CLICK on “Football.” Apply Newton’s Laws to the football clip.
iv. CLICK on “Gymnastics.” Apply Newton’s Laws to the gymnastics clip.
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PART II:
Use the Web site Sports Science at the Exploratorium located at http://www.exploratorium.edu/sports/index.html,
and your knowledge of other planets to complete the following on Newton’s Laws.
1. Choose a sports activity or event to research and present to the class.
2. Discuss among your group how Newton’s Laws determine the motion within that sport. Record answers
3. How would the sport change if it were played on the Moon, Jupiter, and Mars? Record answers in your
laboratory notebook.
4. Prepare materials to present to the class.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Virtual Roller Coaster
NOTES
Learning Experience 3
Description:
This learning experience is designed to help students understand the
application of Newton’s Laws of motion to the creation of a roller coaster.
Time Frame:
55 minutes
Materials:
Computer with Internet access (1 per student group)
Student laboratory notebook (1 per student)
Virtual Roller Coaster investigation pages
(included in the Blackline Masters section at the end of this vista)
Prepare copies of the Virtual Roller Coaster investigation pages for each
student group.
Procedures:
Teacher note: This investigation should be conducted using
groups of two students per group.
1. Have students complete the Virtual Roller Coaster investigation pages.
Formative Assessment: Monitor students as they complete the Virtual
Roller Coaster investigation pages. The correct responses to item 3 are below.
Part I
Part II
Part III
Part IV
Part V
80 m
Slope
Low slope
70 m
Ellipse
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2. Compile class data from the Funderstanding Roller Coaster Web site. Class discussion should focus on the
forces and properties being investigated, and on what may have caused the differences between each group’s
data. Emphasize the importance of controlling variables and repeating investigations to obtain valid results.
Sample Class Chart:
Variable Slider Position
Group
20
Hill 1
Hill 2
Loop
Speed
Mass
FINAL
Gravity
Friction
Speed
Time
Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Virtual Roller Coaster
Use the outline below to navigate through the Web pages. Use the specific links to answer each of the questions and
page, but return to the original page by using the BACK navigating function.
Investigation
1. Log on to Roller Coaster Physics located at: http://coasters.eb.com/ride.html.
2. Navigate through the links to investigate the physics properties of a roller coaster.
Design
1. Log on to Amusement Park Physics:
http://www.learner.org/exhibits/parkphysics/coaster/
2. Navigate through the links to investigate and design the five parts of a safe and exciting roller coaster.
3. Copy the table below to your journal and record the five parts of the best design.
Part I
Part II
Part III
Part IV
Part V
4. Log on to Funderstanding Roller Coaster: www.funderstanding.com/k12/coaster/
5. Using the knowledge obtained from the previous Web sites, manipulate the seven components to design the
safest roller coaster that travels at the greatest speed in the shortest time.
6. If you need help with a component of the simulation, CLICK on the “?” that relates to each slider.
7. Organize trials into a data table. Record position of slider using “percents.”
Examples:
25%
75%
8. Look for trends in variables.
9. Print out the final roller coaster and post data on the class chart.
10. Score roller coaster using the rubric, then paste coaster into your laboratory notebook.
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Virtual Roller Coaster Rubric
Beginning
Developing
Accomplished
Exemplary
1
2
3
4
Speed
Slowest
Medium
Fast
Fastest
Time
Longest
Medium
Short
Shortest
SCORE
TOTAL
11. Discuss in your group how the combination of forces caused the results. Record hypothesis in your
laboratory notebook.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Unidentified Flying
Compact Disk
NOTES
Learning Experience 4
Description:
This learning experience is designed to help students understand the
application of Newton’s Laws.
Teacher note: This investigation also assesses students’ abilities to
control and manipulate variables.
Time Frame:
55 minutes
Materials:
Compact disks (2 per student group)
Plastic caps from drinking water bottles (pull-to-open/push-to-close)
(2 per student group)
Strong adhesive glue (1 bottle for the teacher)
Sandpaper
Balloons of different sizes/shapes (2 per student group)
Stopwatch (1 per student group)
Meter stick (metric ruler) (1 per student group)
Student laboratory notebook (1 per student)
Unidentified Flying Compact Disk investigation pages (included in the
Blackline Masters section at the end of this vista)
1. Prepare enough Unidentified Flying Compact Disks (UFCD) so that
each student group can choose at least two.
2. To assemble the UFCD, score the surface of the compact disk lightly
around the center opening to allow the glue to adhere better. Use a
variety of CDs and bottle caps, and variation in the assembly, such
as assembling some with the smooth side facing up, bottle caps off
center, etc.
3. Coat the bottom edge of a plastic cap from a drinking water bottle
(pull-to-open/push-to-close type) with a strong adhesive glue and
glue the bottle cap over the hole in the center of the CD
(see Figure 1).
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NOTES
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4. Prepare copies of the Unidentified Flying Compact Disk investigation
pages for each student group.
Procedures:
Teacher note: This investigation should be conducted using
groups of no more than four students per group.
1. Distribute the copies of the Unidentified Flying Compact Disk
investigation pages to the students.
2. Provide the pre-glued UFCD assemblies to the groups.
3. Compile class data from proposed UFCD assemblies. Class discussion
should focus on the forces and properties being investigated, and on
what may have caused the differences between each group’s data.
Emphasize the importance of controlling variables and repeating
investigations to obtain valid results.
Formative Assessment: Observe the participation of students during
classroom discussions, and review laboratory notebooks.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Unidentified
Flying Compact Disk
As a product specialist for Hovercrafts, Inc., it is your job to research all new product lines. The CEO has sent down
various prototypes of a new toy called the “UFCD.” Your task is to investigate each prototype and propose the best
combination of materials for production. As a group, organize the data from your investigations into a production
proposal for the CEO.
Materials:
UFCD assembly, stopwatch, meter stick, balloons, laboratory notebook
Procedures:
1. Choose a UFCD assembly to investigate. Record specifics for future identification.
2. Inflate a balloon and place its open end over the top of the plastic bottle cap, being sure that the valve on
the bottle cap has been pushed in so that it is closed. This CD/bottle cap assembly is the Unidentified
Flying Compact Disk (UFCD) prototype. (See Figure 1)
3.
Set the UFCD on a clean tabletop. Grasp the bottle cap and slowly open the valve on the cap without
pulling the balloon off the cap. As air is released through the valve, you may begin pushing the UFCD
around. Observe the action. Experiment with different valve openings.
The Charles A. Dana Center at UT Austin
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4. Investigate the mechanics of the UFCD, and record your observations.
NOTES
5. Repeat procedure with different combinations of materials to
determine the best combination.
6. Post group results and be prepared to use the data to support your
proposal.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Kick Dis™
NOTES
Description:
This assessment is designed to help students understand the application
of Newton’s Laws of Motion and the concepts of speed, momentum, and
acceleration.
Time Frame:
55 minutes
Materials:
Kick Dis™ (1 per student group)
Stopwatch (1 per student group)
Meter stick (metric ruler) (1 per student group)
Flexible ruler or object to exert force (1 per student group)
Balance (1 per student group)
Graphing calculator (1 per student group)
Calculator-based ranger (optional, 1 per student group)
Student laboratory notebook (1 per student)
Kick Dis™ Assessment Task pages and rubric (included in the Blackline
Masters section at the end of this vista)
1. Prepare copies of the Kick Dis™ Assessment Task pages and rubric for
each student group.
2. Charge all Kick Dis™ battery packs. Assemble and test prior to each
class.
Procedures:
Teacher note: This investigation should be conducted using
groups of no more than four students per group.
1. Distribute the copies of the Kick Dis™ Assessment Task pages and
rubric to the students.
questions concerning format for assessment.
3. Discuss possible methods to obtain a consistent force. Using a flexible
ruler bent at the same angle for each trial is the suggested approach,
but be open to other suggestions.
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NOTES
4. Distribute the charged and assembled Kick Dis™ devices to the
groups.
5. Compile class data from the Kick Dis™ Assessment Task. Class
discussion should focus on the forces and properties being
investigated, and on what may have caused the differences between
each group’s data. Emphasize the importance of controlling variables
and repeating investigations to obtain valid results.
Formative Assessment: Observe the participation of students during the
investigation and classroom discussions. Use rubric to review report in your
laboratory notebook.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Kick Dis™ Rubric
Beginning
1
Developing
2
Accomplished
3
Exemplary
4
Introduction
Does not give any
what to expect in
the report.
Gives very little
information.
Gives too much
information—more
like a summary.
Presents a
to the report/
presentation.
Research
any questions as
outlined in the
activity.
questions.
questions and includes
a few other interesting
facts.
questions and
includes many
other interesting
facts.
an issue related to
problem.
which is unrelated
to research.
somewhat related to
research.
issue directly
related to
research findings.
Not sequential,
most steps are
missing or are
confusing.
Some of the steps
are understandable;
most are confusing
and lack detail.
Most of the steps are
understandable; some
lack detail or are
confusing.
that are logical
detailed.
Data/Results
Data table and/or
graph missing
information and
inaccurate.
Data table and graph
complete; minor
inaccuracies and/or
illegible characters.
Data table and graph
accurate; some illformed characters.
Data table and
graph neatly
completed and
totally accurate.
Conclusion
Presents
an illogical
explanation for
findings and does
of the requested
data.
Presents an illogical
explanation for
findings and
the requested data
Presents a logical
explanation for
most of the requested
data.
Presents a logical
explanation for
findings and
the requested
data.
Mechanics/
Attractiveness
Very frequent
grammar and/or
spelling errors.
More than two
errors.
Only one or two
errors.
All grammar and
spelling correct.
Purpose/
Problem
Procedure
SCORE
TOTAL
The Charles A. Dana Center at UT Austin
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Kick Dis™
After reviewing the proposals, the CEO of Hovercrafts, Inc., agrees to send the UFCD into production under
the name Kick Dis™. With your suggestions and the addition of technology, the CEO has sent down the new
modified prototype for your team to review.
Your task this time is to investigate its mechanics so that the public relations department can begin developing the
marketing campaign. The CEO requests data on the average speed, acceleration, and momentum of the device
generated by a constant force. This report should contain an outline of your procedure for each investigation, and an
organized set of data and observations.
To support your data, be sure to indicate the fundamental principles of motion (Newton’s Laws) as they apply to
the prototype.
As a trusted employee, you are expected to conduct yourself in a professional manner and use only equipment
approved by the CEO.
Materials:
Kick Dis™, stopwatch, meter stick, balance, graphing calculator, flexible ruler or object to exert force, calculatorbased ranger (optional), student laboratory notebook
Procedures:
1. Set the Kick Dis™ on a clean surface. Turn on switch. As air is released through the vent, you may begin
pushing the device around. Observe the action.
2. Use a flexible ruler or other device to apply a uniform force to the device. Repeat until a consistent force
and motion is obtained.
3. Investigate the required mechanics of the Kick Dis™ and record your observations.
4. Post group data on class chart. Be prepared to defend findings.
5. Prepare a report of your group’s data for the CEO. Be sure to include suggestions for modifications
to improve the Kick Dis™ performance. Review the rubric to ensure compliance with the CEO’s
expectations.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Teacher
Blackline Masters
The Charles A. Dana Center at UT Austin
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USED FOR LEARNING EXPERIENCES 1–3
Classic Newton:
1) http://www.physicsclassroom.com
2) http://library.thinkquest.org/10796/ch4/ch4.htm
3) http://library.thinkquest.org/3042/linear_quiz.html
Physics of Sports:
1) http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/VideoTestbed/Projects/Physics/page_1.html
2) http://www.exploratorium.edu/sports/index.html
Virtual Roller Coaster:
1) http://coasters.eb.com/ride.html
2) http://www.learner.org/exhibits/parkphysics/coaster/
3) http://www.funderstanding.com/k12/coaster/
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Controlled Motion
Student Blackline Masters
The Charles A. Dana Center at UT Austin
33
Controlled Motion Scenario
As a product specialist team for Hovercrafts, Inc., it is your job to research all new product lines prior to marketing.
The CEO has plans to send down various prototypes of a new toy with plans of mass distribution by the next
holiday season.Your task will be to investigate the design and mechanics of each prototype and make suggestions for
changes and uses, so that the public relations department can begin developing the campaign.
While your team waits on the prototypes, you are required to do research on kinematics and how it relates to
sports and other entertainment. This research will provide the necessary background information for the required
components of the production proposal.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Classic Newton
Use the outline below to navigate through the Web pages. Use the specific links to answer each of the questions.
bottom of each page, but return to the original page by using the BACK navigating function.
Part I: Kinematics
1. Log on to the Physics Classroom located at: http://www.physicsclassroom.com
2. CLICK on “Multimedia Physics Studio.”
3. CLICK on “1-D Kinematics,” then on “Average vs. Instantaneous Speed” (located in the side bar).
a. Define average speed.
b. Why is speed a scalar quantity?
c. How is speed calculated?
d. What is the difference between speed and velocity?
4. CLICK on “Hot Wheel Track” (located in the side bar).
a. Define acceleration.
b. How is acceleration calculated?
c. Why is acceleration a vector quantity?
d. What are the three ways an object can accelerate?
5. CLICK on “The Stoplight” (located in the side bar).
a. Work through the problems on the screen. Check answers.
6. CLICK on “Multimedia Physics Studio,” “Newton’s Laws,” and “The Car and the Wall” (located in the side bar).
a. Why is Newton’s First Law of Motion called the Law of Inertia?
b. Who was the first person to develop the concept of inertia?
c. Describe one application of Newton’s First Law of Motion.
d. Use Newton’s First Law of Motion to explain the purpose of seat belts.
7. CLICK “The Motorcyclist” (located in the side bar).
a. Why are motorcycles not equipped with seat belts?
8. CLICK on “The Elephant and Feather—Free Fall” (located in the side bar).
b. Define free-fall.
The Charles A. Dana Center at UT Austin
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c. Why is force a vector quantity?
d. Do all objects fall with the same rate of acceleration? Explain.
e. Does a person diet to lose mass or to lose weight? Explain.
f.
Why does the elephant hit the ground at the same time as the feather during the free fall?
9. CLICK on “The Elephant and Feather—Air Resistance” (located in the side bar).
b. Is a force needed to keep an object in motion? Explain.
c. Define air resistance.
d. Define terminal velocity.
e. Why does the elephant hit the ground first in the presence of air resistance? (Hint: Use the link “The
Skydiver” if assistance is needed in answering this question.)
10. CLICK on “Physics Tutorial,” “Momentum and Its Conservation Lesson #2,” and “Momentum Conservation
Principle” (located in the side bar).
a. Define momentum.
b. How is momentum calculated?
c. Work through the “CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING” questions.
11. CLICK on “Physics Tutorial,” and “Newton’s Laws, Lesson #4” (located in the side bar).
a. Work through the “CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING” questions.
b. An insect strikes a windshield while you are driving a car. Which of the two forces is greater: the insect
hitting the windshield or the windshield hitting the insect?
12. CLICK on “Identifying Action and Reaction Force Pairs” (located in the side bar).
a. Work through the “CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING” questions.
b. Cite an example of Newton’s third law.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Part II:Think Quest Library
1. Log on to http://library.thinkquest.org/10796/ch4/ch4.htm
CLICK on Blue Button “VISIT SITE”
N
N
m/s2
N
kg
2. Log on to http://library.thinkquest.org/3042/linear_quiz.html
CLICK on Blue Button “VISIT SITE”
notebook.
Part III: Newtonian Demonstrator
As your teacher uses a Newtonian Demonstrator, apply Newton’s three laws to explain its motion. Record
Part IV:Word Wall
Create Verbal-Visual Word Association cards for each of the vocabulary terms from the activity.
WORD
PICTURE
DEFINITION
NON-EXAMPLE
The Charles A. Dana Center at UT Austin
37
Physics of Sports
Use the outline below to navigate through the Web pages. Use the specific links to answer each of the questions
of each page, but return to the original page by using the BACK navigating function.
Each group is to use the information from the sites and prepare an oral presentation on how Newton’s Laws are
represented in a chosen sport.
PART I:
1. Log on to the Physics of Sports Connection located at:
http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Cyberia/VideoTestbed/Projects/Physics/page_1.html
2. Review Newton’s Laws by navigating through each link, using the BACK button to return to page 1 between
laws.
a. CLICK on ”Newton’s First Law.”
b. CLICK on “Newton’s Second Law.”
c. CLICK on “Newton’s Third Law.”
3. CLICK on “Universal Gravitation.”
a. Draw the path in your laboratory notebook that the discus will follow after it leaves an athlete’s hand, and
explain what forces cause the shape of the path.
4. CLICK on “Cyberbody Tour.”
a. CLICK on “Musculoskeletal System,” “Joint,” “Patella.”
b. Navigate through each sport and view the video clips
i.
CLICK on “Baseball.” Apply Newton’s Laws to the baseball clip.
ii. CLICK on “Football.” Apply Newton’s Laws to the football clip.
iv. CLICK on “Gymnastics.” Apply Newton’s Laws to the gymnastics clip.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
PART II:
Use the Web site Sports Science at the Exploratorium located at
http://www.exploratorium.edu/sports/index.html, and your knowledge of other planets to complete the following
on Newton’s Laws.
1. Choose a sports activity or event to research and present to the class.
2. Discuss among your group how Newton’s Laws determine the motion within that sport. Record answers in
3. How would the sport change if it were played on the Moon, Jupiter, and Mars? Record answers in your
laboratory notebook.
4. Prepare materials to present to the class.
The Charles A. Dana Center at UT Austin
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Virtual Roller Coaster
Use the outline below to navigate through the Web pages. Use the specific links to answer each of the questions
bottom of each page, but return to the original page by using the BACK navigating function.
Investigation
1. Log on to Roller Coaster Physics located at: http://coasters.eb.com/ride.html
2. Navigate through the links to investigate the physics properties of a roller coaster.
Design
1. Log on to Amusement Park Physics: http://www.learner.org/exhibits/parkphysics/coaster/
2. Navigate through the links to investigate and design the five parts of a safe and exciting roller coaster.
3. Copy the table below to your journal and record the five parts of the best design.
Part I
Part II
Part III
Part IV
Part V
4. Log on to Funderstanding Roller Coaster: http://www.funderstanding.com/k12/coaster/
5. Using the knowledge obtained from the previous Web sites, manipulate the seven components to design the
safest roller coaster that travels at the greatest speed in the shortest time.
6. If you need help with a component of the simulation, CLICK on the “?” that relates to each slider.
7. Organize trials into a data table. Record position of slider using “percents.”
Examples:
25%
75%
8. Look for trends in variables.
9. Print out the final roller coaster and post data on the class chart.
10. Score roller coaster using the rubric, then paste coaster into your laboratory notebook.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Virtual Roller Coaster Rubric
Beginning
1
Developing
2
Accomplished
3
Exemplary
4
Speed
Slowest
Medium
Fast
Fastest
Time
Longest
Medium
Short
Shortest
SCORE
TOTAL
11. Discuss in your group how the combination of forces caused the results. Record hypothesis in your
laboratory journal.
The Charles A. Dana Center at UT Austin
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Unidentified Flying Compact Disk
As a product specialist for Hovercrafts, Inc., it is your job to research all new product lines. The CEO has sent down
various prototypes of a new toy called the “UFCD.” Your task is to investigate each prototype and propose the best
combination of materials for production. As a group, organize the data from your investigations into a production
proposal for the CEO.
Materials:
UFCD assembly, stopwatch, meter stick, balloons, student laboratory notebook
Procedures:
1. Choose a UFCD assembly to investigate. Record specifics for future identification.
2. Inflate a balloon and place its open end over the top of the plastic bottle cap, being sure that the valve on
the bottle cap has been pushed in so that it is closed. This CD/bottle cap assembly is the Unidentified
Flying Compact Disk (UFCD) prototype. (See Figure 1)
3. Set the UFCD on a clean tabletop. Grasp the bottle cap and slowly open the valve on the cap without
pulling the balloon off the cap. As air is released through the valve, you may begin pushing the UFCD
around. Observe the action. Experiment with different valve openings.
4. Investigate the mechanics of the UFCD, and record your observations.
5. Repeat procedure with different combinations of materials to determine the best combination.
6. Post group results and be prepared to use the data to support your proposal.
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
Kick Dis™
After reviewing the proposals, the CEO of Hovercrafts, Inc., agrees to send the UFCD into production under
the name Kick Dis™. With your suggestions and the addition of technology, the CEO has sent down the new
modified prototype for your team to review.
Your task this time is to investigate its mechanics so that the public relations department can begin developing the
marketing campaign. The CEO requests data on the average speed, acceleration, and momentum of the device
generated by a constant force. This report should contain an outline of your procedure for each investigation, and an
organized set of data and observations.
To support your data, be sure to indicate the fundamental principles of motion (Newton’s Laws) as they apply to
the prototype.
As a trusted employee, you are expected to conduct yourself in a professional manner and use only equipment
approved by the CEO.
Materials:
Kick Dis™, stopwatch, meter stick, balance, graphing calculator, flexible ruler or object to exert force, calculatorbased ranger (optional), student laboratory notebook
Procedures:
1. Set the Kick Dis™ on a clean surface. Turn on switch. As air is released through the vent, you may begin
pushing the device around. Observe the action.
2. Use a flexible ruler or other device to apply a uniform force to the device. Repeat until a consistent force
and motion is obtained.
3. Investigate the required mechanics of the Kick Dis™ and record your observations.
4. Post group data on class chart. Be prepared to defend findings.
5. Prepare a report of your group’s data for the CEO. Be sure to include suggestions for modifications
to improve the Kick Dis™ performance. Review the rubric to ensure compliance with the CEO’s
expectations.
The Charles A. Dana Center at UT Austin
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Kick Dis™ Rubric
Beginning
1
Developing
2
Accomplished
3
Exemplary
4
Introduction
Does not give any
what to expect.
Gives very little
information.
Gives too much
information—more
like a summary.
Presents a concise
report/
presentation.
Research
any questions as
outlined in the
activity.
questions.
questions and
includes a few other
interesting facts.
questions and
includes many
other interesting
facts.
Purpose/
Problem
an issue related to
problem.
which is unrelated
to research.
somewhat related to
research.
issue directly
related to
research findings.
Procedure
Not sequential,
most steps are
missing or are
confusing.
Some of the steps
are understandable;
most are confusing
and lack detail.
Most of the steps are
understandable; some
lack detail or are
confusing.
that are logical
detailed.
Data table and/or
graph missing
information and
inaccurate.
Data table and
graph complete,
minor inaccuracies
and/or illegible
characters.
Data table and graph
accurate, some illformed characters.
Data table and
graph neatly
completed and
totally accurate.
Conclusion
Presents an illogical
explanation for
findings and does
the requested data.
Presents an illogical
explanation for
findings and
the requested data
Presents a logical
explanation for
findings and
the requested data.
Presents a logical
explanation for
findings and
the requested
data.
Mechanics
Very frequent
grammar and/or
spelling errors.
More than two
errors.
Only one or two
errors.
All grammar and
spelling correct.
Data/
Results
SCORE
TOTAL
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Integrated Physics and Chemistry Institute – Fall 2004
CONTROLLED MOTION
Pre– and Post–Test
Complete the following data table with your knowledge of science and then answer
questions 1–3.
Plantetary
body
Student’s weight (N) Student’s mass (kg)
Earth
549
Mars
209
Jupiter
1394
Earth’s moon
56
93
1. On which of the planetary bodies is the gravitational force strongest?
A Earth
B Mars
C Jupiter
D Earthʼs moon
2. Which of the following statements is supported by this data?
A The studentʼs mass will remain the same on all planets.
B The studentʼs mass will be greatest on Jupiter.
C The studentʼs mass will be the least on Earthʼs moon.
D The studentʼs mass will vary from planet to planet.
3. What is the acceleration due to gravity on Mars?
A 1.7 m/s2
B 3.7 m/s2
C 5208 m/s2
D 11,704 m/s2
4. NASA must monitor the acceleration of the space shuttle during each mission. For a certain
portion of the mission, the initial velocity of the shuttle is 17,500 m/s and 2 minutes later the
velocity is 18,500 m/s. What is the average acceleration of the shuttle during this part of the
mission?
A 2000 m/s2
B 1000 m/s2
C 500 m/s2
D 8.33 m/s2
5. Newtonʼs first law, sometimes called the Law of Inertia, is best illustrated by—
A the rowing of a boat in a slow moving river.
B a force being applied to a tennis ball to cause it to accelerate.
C the straight line motion of a rocket in outer space.
D the weight of an object measured on Earth.
6. A 4.0 kg object is moving across a frictionless surface with a constant velocity of 2 m/s. Which
of the following horizontal forces is necessary to maintain this constant velocity?
A 0N
B 0.5 N
C 2.0 N
D 8.0 N
7. What is the acceleration of an object that has a mass of 7.5 kg and generates a force of
15 newtons?
A 112.5 m/s2
B 22.5 m/s2
C 2.0 m/s2
D 0.5 m/s2
Use the following graph and your knowledge of science to answer questions 9 and 10.
8. Which object has the greatest acceleration?
A w
B x
C y
D z
9. Which of the objects are not moving?
A x and y
B u and z
C w and x
D y and z
10. Many of the rules of driving are based on Newtonʼs laws. In the illustration above, why
would it be best for the person driving the car not to brake suddenly?
A Braking will wear down the carʼs tires due to excessive friction.
B The car will have an overall change in its momentum.
C Air moving around the car will effect the truckʼs fuel efficiency.
D The truckʼs mass prevents it from slowing down quickly.