ET NO. 13
Prepared by:
b Jennie O
Oxley & Lau
urie Budd
Purpose of this
t Fact Sh
The purrposes of thhis paper aree:
 to provide an overviiew of the motorcyclle (inclusiv
ve of all ppowered tw
vehicles) saafety probleem in Westeern Australiia and elsew
where ; and
 to describe some countermeasuress in the con
ntext of Wesstern Austraalia’s Towarrds Zero
k to address motorcycliist safety.
road safety framework
What is the motorcycliist road saffety problem
m1 in Westtern Austraalia?
While motorcyclees comprisse a smalll proportio
on of the vehicle ffleet in Australia
vvehicles an
nd 0.9% of vehicle-killometres traavelled),
(approxximately 4.55% of all registered
motorcyycle riders account
for approximaately 15 perccent of all road
deaths and an even higher
proportion of serioous injuries in 2007.13 IIn Western Australia, motorcyclis
sts accounteed for 15
4 percent oof the vehiccle fleet.
percent of all roadd deaths in 2008, whille comprisiing only 5.4
Howeveer, motorcyycle usage iss increasingg: in Western Australia for examplle, the propo
ortion of
registerred motorcyycles increased from 4..2 percent of
o the vehiccle fleet in 11998 to 5.4
4 percent
in 20077.30 This inccrease is ex
xpected to leead to an in
ncrease in motorcyclem
-related crasshes and
Analysees of the Western
ustralia crassh data from
m 2000 to 2009 reveealed the fo
contribuuting factorrs to fatal an
nd serious innjury motorrcycle crash
 A
Alcohol. Allmost one-q
quarter (24.22%) of fatall crashes an
nd 4.7 perceent of seriou
us injury
crashes invvolved riderrs with a B
Blood Alcoh
hol Level (B
BAC) of 0..1g/100ml blood
 A
Age. Youngg riders ageed 34 years and below comprised 56 percentt of all moto
deaths, witth those ageed between 25 and 34 years acco
ounting for 33.6 percent of all
fatalities. Similar
portions aree reported for
f serious injury crashhes, with teeenagers
below licennsing age in
nvolved in 33.5 percent serious
injurry crashes;
Australlian and Westtern Australian
n crash statisttics rarely sep
parate motorcy
ycles, mopedss or scooters. However
there are very few registered moped
ds and scooterrs and the num
mbers of crash
hes thought too involve these vehicles
are low. The crash datta presented in
n this paper innclude motorccycles, moped
ds or scooters but do not incclude trail
bikes whhen ridden off--road.
Curtin - M
Monash Acciddent Research
h Centre
June 20111
Fact Sheet No. 13
Improving Motorcycle Safety in a Safe System
Gender. Overwhelmingly, males are involved in fatalities and serious injuries,
compared with females (98.1% fatalities and 91.9% serious injuries);
Location. Two-thirds (67.6%) of fatal crashes and 75.6 percent of serious injury
crashes occurred on metropolitan roads, with the majority occurring in speed zones of
60 and 70 km/h (55% fatal and 55% serious injury crashes). The majority of crashes
were at intersections and roundabouts (87% fatalities and 81% serious injuries).
Motorcyclists’ heightened involvement in fatal and serious injury crashes is readily apparent
when compared to car drivers. Figures 1 and 2 show the risk of fatal and serious injury crash
involvement by mode of travel per registered vehicle, comparing motorcyclists and passenger
vehicles in Western Australia 2000-2009.
Fatal crashes per 100,000 vehicles
Passenger vehicles
Serious injury crashes per 10,000 vehicles
Figure 1: Fatal crash rates of riders and drivers per 10,000 registered vehicles, 2000-2009.
Passenger vehicles
Figure 2: Serious injury crash rates of riders and drivers per 10,000 registered vehicles, 2000-2009.
These figures show that the risk of being in a fatal or serious injury crash over the 10-year
period was substantially higher for motorcyclists than for vehicle drivers (approximately 4
times for fatal crashes and 3 times for serious injury crashes).
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Fact Sheet No. 13
Improving Motorcycle Safety in a Safe System
Crash and injury risk factors
3.1 Rider vulnerability
Motorcyclists are vulnerable because of their relative lack of protection against impacts with
other vehicles, the ground and roadside objects.19 8 Rider injuries are therefore often more
severe than those of other road users.
3.2 Vehicle instability
The inherent instability of motorcycles makes them more prone to crashing compared with
other vehicles. The problems of instability are exacerbated when braking: locking the wheel
by braking increases the risk of losing control, particularly when applied in emergencies.
Ouellet (2006)21 clearly showed that when riders collided with other road users, they
frequently fell due to locked wheels before actually hitting the ‘obstacle’.
Low conspicuity, or the failure of the rider to be seen by other road users, is also associated
with risk of collision. Other road users can experience difficulty detecting motorcyclists due
to riders’ small size, their often dark clothing and irregular contour/shape compared with
passenger cars. The small numbers of motorcyclists on the roads and riders’ unusual
behaviours such as high speeds5 and unexpected locations (such as driving between lanes)
also contribute to their failure to be seen by other road users. Further, Doğan et al (2004)6
noted that the size of motorcyclists render them more likely to be obscured by other vehicles
and objects and are hard to detect in glary conditions.
Rider behaviours
A lack of basic riding skills, failure to appreciate the inherent operating characteristics and
limitations of the vehicle, failure to use special precautions while riding, failure to use
defensive riding techniques, lack of specific braking and cornering skills, and failure to
comply with speed limits also contribute to riders’ crash and injury risk.19
Age and gender of riders are other contributing factors. Motorcyclist injuries have
customarily been considered a young male phenomenon. However, in many European
countries, the proportion of female riders sustaining injuries is increasing.8 With regard to
age, there is an increasing trend in Europe, the US and Australia for ‘older’ riders (aged 50
years and above) to be over-involved in crashes.10 28 Some of these older riders may be new
to the activity or may be returning after a long absence from riding – indicating a lack of
experience or limited up-to-date-experience.
Speeding is another major contributor to crashes. Higher speed reduces a rider’s ability to
control the motorcycle, to negotiate curves or other obstacles in the roadway and increases
the chance of running off the road or into an on-coming vehicle. Speed also increases: the
distance a motorcyclist travels while the rider reacts to a hazard, therefore reducing the time
available to avoid a collision; the severity of the impact in a collision (even small increases in
speed can result in a dramatic increases in the forces applied to crash victims); and
unpredictability of the rider to other road users.
Adoption of other risky riding behaviours is also a consideration. In countries such as the US,
Australia and Canada, the motorcycle is still reported to be mainly used for recreational
purposes, even though there is an increasing number of commuter motorcyclists. Given the
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Fact Sheet No. 13
Improving Motorcycle Safety in a Safe System
combined vulnerability and excitement of motorcycle riding, it is no surprise that it attracts
some individuals who are more prone to take risks than others.11 Riding behaviours that have
been found to increase crash risk include riding too fast, alcohol, and poor observation and
signalling at junctions.17
Motorcyclist safety and the Towards Zero framework
As unprotected road users who frequently travel at high speeds, motorcyclists present a
specific challenge for the Safe System approach to road safety. Moreover, the popularity of
motorcycling as an alternative travel mode is increasing, suggesting an increase in the
numbers of motorcycle deaths and serious injuries.
Western Australia’s Towards Zero aims to reduce the number of people killed or seriously
injured on WA roads by 40% between 2008 and 2020. It is intended that this will be achieved
by employing evidence-based initiatives under the four Safe Systems cornerstones:4
 safe road use (20% reduction in all deaths and serious injuries);
 safe roads and roadsides (25% reduction);
 safe speeds (29% reduction); and
 safe vehicles (26% reduction).
Safe road use for motorcyclists
There are two key ways to improve road user behaviour to address motorcyclist safety.
First is the need to adopt safe riding practices. Education, information, practical training and
an appropriate licensing system are essential for acquiring the attitudes, skills and knowledge
necessary for safe road use. Motorcycle riding is reported to require higher levels of both
vehicle control and cognitive skills than car driving,8 and this is not surprising, given the
instability of riding on two wheels compared with four wheels. Moreover, the potential
outcomes of any failure on the part of the rider, other road users or the environment threaten
to be more severe. While there is no conclusive evidence suggesting that training is beneficial
for motorcycle safety, hazard perception training holds some promise10 21 While various
forms of graduated licenses for riders have been implemented in Australian jurisdictions,
including Western Australia, there is merit in considering more stringent graduated licensing
schemes that are evidence-based and include appropriate principles of graduated licensing
systems for novice drivers that apply to novice riders.
Second, there is the need to counter rider vulnerability, especially by wearing personal
protective equipment. The most commonly required protective equipment required by law is
a helmet. Helmets significantly reduce the probability of head and neck injuries by 53 percent
and lead to a 72 percent reduction in the probability of death.14 Conversely, unhelmeted
motorcyclists sustain substantially higher rates of facial and brain injuries compared to
helmeted riders.7 Other items of motorcycle protective clothing, including jackets, pants,
gloves and boots, are often recommended by road safety authorities. However, few if any
jurisdictions legally require riders to wear this equipment. Further, survey studies show that
virtually all Australian riders report wearing a jacket and helmet when riding but are less
likely to report wearing protective clothing on body areas that are most often implicated in
motorcycle crashes, such as their legs.5 Promotion of wearing helmets and other protective
gear is recommended along with consideration at both jurisdictional and national levels to set
guidelines and standards for minimum protective clothing required.
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Fact Sheet No. 13
Improving Motorcycle Safety in a Safe System
Safe roads and roadsides for motorcyclists
The safety of motorcyclists is compromised to a large extent by the design and operation of
the road system, especially as motorcyclists differ in their use of the road compared with
drivers of other motor vehicles. As an example, manoeuvring a motorcycle in curves requires
a motorcyclist taking a different line than drivers, and the motorcycle is steered and balanced
as a result of a complex interaction of forces rarely incorporated into the road design. At
intersections, too, reduced conspicuity of motorcyclists due to poor infrastructure has been
identified as a contributing factor to motorcyclist crashes.2
Intersections and roundabouts accounted for the great majority of motorcyclist fatal and
serious injuries in Western Australia, emphasising the need to improve intersection design. At
intersections and roundabouts, optimal conspicuity and detection of motorcyclists are
essential and some suggestions for improvement are:
 The comparatively small size of a motorcycle requires that barriers, vegetation and
road signs be placed so that they do not obscure a motorcycle. The design of
intersections should offer a complete view of a motorcycle in the entire sight zone,
while enabling the motorcyclist to have a complete view of the intersection.
 While roundabouts generally show low crash rates for most types of vehicles,
motorcyclist collisions are relatively high because of specific problems of detection,
approach speed and deceleration. Roundabout design that supports approach and entry
angles of between 30 and 40 degrees are recommended for motorcyclists.2
 Reduced speed limits on approaches to complex intersections.
Single-vehicle run off road crashes are also a consideration for motorcyclist safety and
appropriate barrier systems should be considered on road lengths where there is a high
proportion of run-off-road crashes. While the debate continues regarding the types of barrier
systems most protective of motorcyclists, there is the need for protection from collisions with
roadside objects such as trees and poles. Current evidence points to no safety disbenefits of
flexible barrier systems to motorcyclists.
Some points to consider in the design of barrier systems for motorcyclists are:
 Minimize the number of support obstacles for barrier systems and ensure no
protruding, jagged or sharp edges,
 Provision of guarding on barrier support obstacles (particularly on bends),
 On bends, especially, consideration of the motorcyclist leaning behaviour needs to be
incorporated in the design of barrier systems.
Other general road design features that improve motorcyclist safety include:
 Provision of good flat road surfaces free of bumps/dips at intersections, corners and
bends with constant grip and skid resistant road surfaces,
 Provision of good visibility, especially at curves and intersections,
 Placement of road signs and markings at appropriate locations to ensure motorcyclists
are not obscured from view of other road users,
 Provision of frangible roadside furniture.
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Fact Sheet No. 13
Improving Motorcycle Safety in a Safe System
Safer speeds for motorcyclist safety
The Safe System approach acknowledges the vital role of speed in determining overall
system safety and this component is a cornerstone of the Safe System approach. If a safe
system for all road users, including motorcyclists, is to be achieved in the absence of
appropriate infrastructure protection, effective speed management strategies are essential to
ensure that threshold impact speed values are maintained with the road network system.22
This requires comprehensive approaches to traffic management addressing all forms of
speeding including illegal, excessive and recidivist speeding drivers and riders. The main
approaches to managing safer speeds are setting of appropriate and credible speed limits,
enhanced enforcement and supporting education for the general public. A change in the
current ‘speed culture’, hence societies’ acceptance of high speeds, may arguably be vital to
not only recognising the significance of the problem, but to offer a change in future speeding
behaviour observed on Western Australian roads.
Suggestions for enhanced speed management strategies for motorcyclists include:
 Setting of appropriate and credible speed limits on both urban and rural road,
especially popular motorcyclist routes;
 Increased use of speed limit advisory signs on popular motorcyclist routes;
 Maintenance and enhancement of widespread, highly visible and constant speed
enforcement, including dual lens speed cameras to enable enforcement of speeding
motorcyclists from the rear;
 Adoption of minimal tolerance levels in conjunction with speed limits based on a Safe
System approach;
 For recidivist speeding riders, specific targeted deterrence is required and can include
higher penalties, requirement for use of ISA technology, loss of licence.
Safe vehicles for motorcyclist safety
Safety-enhancing technologies for motorcycle safety are not as well developed as for
passenger vehicles.3 Notwithstanding, there are some primary safety measures as described
Enhancing stability and braking power. These technologies have highest priority as
they are relevant to almost all motorcycle crash types. Advanced braking technologies
such as anti-lock braking systems (ABS) reduce both the likelihood and the fear of the
brakes locking in an emergency situation. Losing control of the path of the vehicle is
otherwise a risk should the brakes lock, and the fear of this occurring means few
riders use the maximum brake potential of their vehicle. It has been argued that ABS
could be considered similar to electronic stability control on passenger cars, because
they both act automatically when a critical situation is detected, address typical
limitations in human performance in critical situations (e.g., difficulty controlling two
systems - front and rear brakes - at once, low deceleration to avoid locked wheels and
tumbling over, and lack of knowledge about and skills in optimal brake handling).
There is early evidence to suggest that ABS is an effective way to reduce motorcyclist
crash and injury risk.23 Furthermore, it is thought that ABS will result in a positive
change in rider behaviour, as well as an actual reduction in motorcycle crashes as
riders with ABS would presumably have no fear of brakes locking and use maximum
brake potential in an emergency situation.
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Fact Sheet No. 13
Crash avoidance systems. These systems can alert the rider to potential hazards in the
road environment and/or to dangerous behaviours. These include: collision warning
systems, following distance warning systems, inter-vehicle communication, lane
departure warning systems and lane keeping systems. While crash avoidance systems
have not been widely developed for motorcycles,3 many have clear potential for
improving motorcyclist safety. Implementation of these systems could be problematic
for motorcycles unless reliable steering and braking systems were also developed.
Moreover, there may be low acceptance of these technologies by those riders who
perceive a lessening of riding excitement.
Daytime running lights (DRL). It has been argued that the use of DRLs is beneficial
for motorcyclist safety and will reduce the occurrence of multiple-vehicle collisions
during the day, and that this effect can be further enhanced by other conspicuity
enhancing countermeasures, such as wearing reflective clothing. This technology has
been implemented in several countries and there are a number of studies that attest to
the benefits of DRL, with up to an estimated 7 percent reduction in daytime crashes
(cited in HUMANIST, 2006). However the conspicuity advantage of motorcycles as
the only vehicles with daytime lights has now been questioned due to the growing
practice among drivers of turning on their lights during the day, now authorized in
most countries. Many researchers and road-safety specialists, as well as motorcyclist
associations, argue that car DRLs are likely to compete with motorcycle DRLs and
may have a detrimental impact on rider safety.12 9 15 29 There are also some concerns
regarding the benefits of dual headlamps for motorcyclists, particularly for safety
during night riding. The main concern is that motorcycles fitted with paired side by
side headlamps, as viewed by other motorists, can give the illusion of it being a motor
car at a much greater distance. This distance illusion has implications for collisions
particularly. These are emerging issues warranting further research and identification
of solutions. One solution may be to identify unique visual signatures for motorcycles
that would increase their detection, such as changed ergonomics of motorcycle
headlights, increased visual width and height of motorcycles and their headlights.24 18
Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA). While the specific design and operating
characteristics of motorcycles pose a particular challenge, the adaptation of ISA
technologies to motorcycles is proceeding with recent formal trials in the UK25 and in
New South Wales.20
Airbags. There are demonstrated safety benefits of vehicle-mounted airbags for
motorcyclists, particularly reducing the incidence of being thrown from the
motorcycle in multiple-vehicle collisions.16 31 However, there are concerns about the
potential for airbags to increase head and neck injury upon deployment,27 especially
because the position of the rider is not always upright and there may be smaller
distances between the rider’s face and the airbag. The presence of a pillion passenger
will also affect the forward force of the rider.26 3
Improving Motorcycle Safety in a Safe System
Summary and conclusions
Crashes and injuries involving motorcycles and their riders and passengers are a serious and
growing concern for road safety. Motorcyclist safety has long posed a major challenge to the
Safe System approach, especially because they are unprotected yet travel at high speeds. In
the context of Western Australia’s Towards Zero road safety strategy, a number of initiatives
to improve the safety of motorcyclists are suggested, and include:
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Improving Motorcycle Safety in a Safe System
Enhanced training and educational programs, especially hazard perception training
and awareness of wearing protective clothing;
Graduated licensing system for novice riders;
Improvements to intersection and roundabout design;
Improvements to roadside barrier systems, especially at curves;
Improved speed management for drivers and riders, including setting of appropriate
speed limits, enhanced speed detection and enforcement especially for recidivist
speeding riders, and supporting public awareness campaigns;
Technological enhancements to motorcycles, especially stability and braking systems,
collision avoidance and speed adaptation systems, and airbag development.
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Retrieved March 14, 2011, from http://www.maids-study.eu/pdf/MAIDS2.pdf.
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MUARC Report 260. Melbourne, Monash University Accident Research Centre.
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due to Transport, 1999-00 to 2003-04. Canberra, Australia: Department of Infrastructure,
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accidents in urban areas: A speed problem? Advances in Transportation Studies, 8, 23-29.de
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Evaluation of intersection collision warning system using an inter-vehicle communication
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Improving Motorcycle Safety in a Safe System
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lights (DRL): A review of the reports from the European Commission. TRL.
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Improving Motorcycle Safety in a Safe System
This fact sheet has been produced with funding from the Road Safety Council in the interest
of saving lives on our roads.
Curtin - Monash Accident Research Centre
School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University
GPO Box U1987, PERTH 6845, Western Australia
Ph: (08) 9266 2304
See www.c-marc.curtin.edu.au for more information
Curtin - Monash Accident Research Centre
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