Instructional Resources Course Title: America and WW II Grade Level: Fourth Grade Unit: America and WW II By: Brian Wesson, Bret Miller, and Evan Pryor Abstract This unit centers around the bombings at Pearl Harbor. The unit starts with an explanation of why the war started. It then moves to explain why the Americans are neutral and how we are attacked leading us to change that viewpoint. The unit ends with a lesson describing how Americans enter the war and some of the results because of it. This entire unit focuses on making choice. Sometimes choices are hard, but eventually they have to be made. Focus Questions 1. What would you have liked to happen in WWII? 2. Do you agree with WWII? 3. What did America do during WWII? The History on the Net Group. (2/01/2011). World War Two- Causes. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from History on the Net: http://www.historyonthenet.com/WW2/cause s.htm U.S. Army Center for Military History. (2003). The Outbreak of War. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from World War History: http://www.worldwariihistory.info/WWII/war .html (2011). What Happened?. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from Pearl Harbor. org: http://www.pearlharbor.org/history-of-pearlharbor.asp Rosenberg, J. (2011). Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from About.com: http://history1900s.about.com/od/worldwarii /a/hiroshima.htm Zebrowski, C. (2005). Busy with the BlitzProofing. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from America in WWII: http://www.americainwwii.com/stories/busy withtheblitzproofing.html (2011). ‘Victory Garden’ Movement Grows. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from Indiana Daily Student: http://www.idsnews.com/news/story.aspx?id= 54756&search=mill&section=search Castle Films. (2005) Bombing of Pearl Harbor. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from Ball State University Digital Media Repository: http://libx.bsu.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CIS OROOT=/WWIIHistFilm&CISOPTR=113&CISOB OX=1&REC=17 Indiana Bell Telephone Company. (2005) Ready on the Home Front. Retrieved March 30, 2011, from Ball State University Digital Media Repository: http://dvisweb1.bsu.edu/media/wwii/VHSSP_3870_-_ready_on_the_homefront.asx Benchmarks 4.1.10 Growth and Development: 1900 to 1950. Describe the participation of Indiana citizens in World War I and World War II. Assessment Tasks Key Concepts Students will: 1. 2. Create a news report video Create a public service announcement WWII Communication Safety 4.1.11 Growth and Development: 1900 to 1950. Identify and describe important events and movements that changed life in Indiana in the early twentieth century. Catalogue of Lessons: Lesson 1: Axis and Allies WW II started for several reasons. Explain to the students, that after WWI the Germans were punished with the Treaty of Versailles. In that treaty, they were ordered to pay more than they could afford. The Germans tried to appeal the reparations, but were denied. To connect this to the students ask them to listen to the following scenario. There is a bully at school. He knocks you down and even hits you. After the event, he is punished badly; in fact, he is told that he has to pay you 100 dollars. The bully doesn’t have 100 dollars so he asks you to change the penalty. What would you do? Have the students write an answer to the question. Lesson 2: America remains Neutral After WWI, the Americans decided that it would not be wise to join in any other world wars. The army was made for defense only and laws were passed to prevent America from attacking. Over seas the Americas Allies from the first World War were fighting the Germans. Sadly, they Allies start falling, so American preparations for defense rise. The goal of the German leader, Hitler, was to create a larger space for the Germans. Write a letter to President Roosevelt explaining if you agree or disagree with his decision to remain neutral. Lesson 3: Pearl Harbor America had not entered the war and prepared their defensive stance. Unfortunately that was not enough to prevent an attack from the axis powers. A base in Hawaii, Pearl Harbor, was bombed by Japan. The Japanese people bombed Pearl Harbor for over 2 hours destroying aircrafts, battleships, and taking lives. After the students watch the video they will make their own. The class will be given a video camera and will make a news report of the bombing. Lesson 4: The bombing of Hiroshima The teacher will explain that after America had been attacked, it was time to retaliate. Americans had access to atomic bombs, and dropped 2 of them on Japan. This wiped out two of their cities. Explain how Japanese-Americans were treated in America and how the bomb itself was viewed because of the hostility created from the Pear Harbor attack. Once the students understand how America reacted, ask them to create a poster that they would have waved outside of the White House. This poster could agree with or disagree with the decision to bomb. Lesson 5: Indiana enters the war Now that America has entered the war, the people from our area were involved as well. Hoosiers did many different things for the war. Some Hoosier planted small “victory” gardens from which to eat. This helped by allowing America to use the food supply overseas, while the Americans at home were able to eat form their gardens. The citizens of Indiana also practiced air raid drills. These were similar to fire drills and people hid in cellars in case they were bombed. Indiana sent troops and had a major manufacturing boom, especially in the area of steel. This raw steel was used to help make wartime products such as guns, ammo, and vehicle parts. Also explain how women started to take the jobs of men. Many men went to war, and women filled in for them at factories. Introduce Rosie the Riveter as an example. After the students have become familiar with the effects the war on Indiana, the students will write a public service announcement. Assessment: Pearl Harbor Grade: Fourth Unit: World War II Assessment Assessment Abstract Students will use new and previous acquired knowledge of Pearl Harbor to create a persuasive video newscast. The students will use resources such as the Internet and the Ball State digital archives collection to find information regarding the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Students will cover what happened at the naval base and who ordered the attacks on Pearl Harbor. The students will take the role of a news reporter to cover the attacks and get an in depth look of how this attack effects America to this day. The focus of this assessment is to have the students realize how the attack on Pearl Harbor effects our daily lives to this day. After the students have finished their newscast the teacher will hold a discussion to how the attack of Pearl Harbor affected individuals in that time compared to how the attacks of modern day affect individual life. Prompt Ball State Digital Archives Collection http://libx.bsu.edu/ Internet Website http://www.pearlharbor.org/ Directions Over the past few days you have gained more insight and knowledge about the attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Today we are going to take the role of a news reporter during the bombing and create our own newscast covering the event. This artifact will be created using your role-playing, writing, and verbal skills. Students will be paired into groups of two and will be given a video camera to create their newscast covering the Pearl Harbor attack. While creating your newscast let the following questions guide your video: What is the attack on Pearl Harbor? Where is Pearl Harbor located? Who caused this attack? Are there any casualties or injuries? What might have caused this attack? How does this attack affect America? Will it change life for anybody? Should America retaliate or not? Take your opinion? You may notice when watching a newscast that the reporters cover different events in a specific way. It is your job to keep your audience in mind and create a newscast that fits the event that you are covering. When you have finished your newscast we will transfer the newscast from the camera to a separate DVD. When the newscast is transferred to the DVD we will go as a class on a field trip to the public library present the DVDs to the archives collection so the community can view the DVDs. Hold a discussion with the students about how the attack of Pearl Harbor compares to the attacks of modern day. Procedure Give each pair of students a sheet with the guide questions and a video camera to record their newscast. Inform the students that they will be working in pairs and each member should contribute equally to the project. Inform the students that they will be taking the role of a news reporter during the 1940’s and cover the story of the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Explain the scoring rubric to the students and answer any questions that they have concerning the activity or the rubric. Scoring Rubric Benchmark 4.1.11 Growth and Development: 1900 to 1950. Identify and describe important events and movements that changed life in Indiana in the early twentieth century. Score 4 3 2 1 Students include and answer all of the guide questions in their newscast. The newscast is set for the appropriate audience. Students include and answer four to five of the guide questions in their newscast. The newscast is set for the appropriate audience. Students include and answer two to three of the guide questions in their article. The newscast is set for the appropriate audience. Students include and answer one of the guide questions in their newscast. The article is set for the appropriate audience. Assessment: Preparation at the home front Grade: Fourth Unit: World War II Abstract This task is designed to assess student’s understanding of the importance of home front preparation during World War II. After viewing the film, Ready on the Home Front, students will write a public service announcement in the perspective of the local air raid warden during the time period of World War II. In the public service announcement, students will create a list of precautions that members of the community should follow in preparation for an air raid. The class will organize their public service announcement to create one document that can be archived at the local library. Prompt The film, Ready on the Home Front found in the Ball State archives collection Notes taken from the, Read on the Home Front An example of what a public service announcement looks like Directions to Students “During World War II, American contribution was not just on the battle front. Here in our local communities, people just like you were preparing for a war. Air raids were a fear in the eyes of many Americans; today we are going to watch a film on how people in Indiana prepared for air raids. During the film, take notes on the different precautions people took in case of an air raid. Once we have watched the film, you will pretend that you are the air raid warden for your local community and you will write a public service announcement to the community about what precautions they should take in case of an air raid. Also, you should state why being prepared for an air raid would be important and what might happen to the community if you are not prepared if a bomb does strike. “ Your newsletter should include: Five precautions people should take o A reason why people should take each precaution Reasoning for why it is important to have a preparation plan What might happen if you are not prepared for an air raid? Procedure Prepare a sample public service announcement for students to follow as an example. Be sure students have watched the film before writing a public service announcement. All the parts of the public service announcement should be written on the board. Scoring Rubric Benchmark 4.1.10 Growth and Development: 1900 to 1950. Describe the participation of Indiana citizens in World War I and World War II. (Core Standard) Score 4 3 2 1 Student creates 5 precautions with 5 reasons for their precautions. Student gives a reason for the importance of a preparation plan and an explanation of what might happen if you are not prepared for an air raid. Student creates 4 precautions with 4 reasons for their precautions. Student gives a reason for the importance of a preparation plan and an explanation of what might happen if you are not prepared for an air raid. Student creates 3 precautions with 3 reasons for their precautions. Student gives a reason for the importance of a preparation plan but does not provide an explanation of what might happen if you are not prepared for an air raid. Student creates less than 3 precautions with less than 3 reasons for their precautions. Student gives a reason for the importance of an preparation plan, but does not provide an explanation of what might happen if you are not prepared for an air raid.