Learning Objectives

advertisement

Learning Objectives

For pages 115–122

In studying this text, you will focus on the following objectives:

Literary Study: Analyzing oratory.

Reading: Evaluating argument.

And Ain’t I aWoman?

by Sojourner Truth

And Ain’t I a Woman?

115

First Proof

Second Proof

Third Proof

PDF Proof

Template

First Proof

Second Proof

Third Proof

Before You Read

And ain’t I aWoman?

Connect to the Speech

In this speech, Sojourner Truth demands that women be treated more fairly. Think of a time in your life in which you were being treated unfairly or unjustly. In a small group, discuss ways people respond to being treated unfairly. On the lines below, list actions people can take to help stop unfairness.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Build Background

During the 1800s, Sojourner Truth was a powerful force in the women’s rights and anti-slavery movements. As you read the following facts, underline any information that you already know.

• Sojourner Truth was born into a life of slavery in New York State. She was beaten and forced to do difficult, strenuous work. She escaped when she was twenty-nine.

• Her given name was Isabella, but she changed her name to Sojourner Truth after she escaped from slavery. The word

sojourner

means “a traveling visitor.” Her name showed that she intended to travel, spreading the truth.

• Truth began to tour as a preacher, attracting large crowds in the North and

Midwest. She spoke about her own mistreatment as a slave in her sermons and soon became a supporter of the women’s rights movement.

• Truth delivered her speech “And Ain’t I a Woman” at the Women’s Rights

Convention in Akron, Ohio, in 1851. Several male speakers said that women were too weak or not smart enough to vote. One man even gave religious reasons against women’s right to vote. Truth’s speech was a response to their criticism.

• Truth did not write her speech down before giving it. Many versions survived.

Some were written in dialect—a local or regional style of speech—but Truth spoke

Standard English. We may not know whose exact words these are, but the spirit is

Truth’s.

Set Purposes for Reading

Read to find out how Sojourner Truth tried to change people’s thinking about the unfair treatment of women.

116

First Proof

Second Proof

Third Proof

PDF Proof

Literary Element Oratory

Oratory

is the art of effective public speaking, or the use of persuasive speaking skills.

It is often used in politics, law, and religion. Persuasive speakers try to get listeners to agree with their ideas or opinions. They use language that appeals to their audience’s emotions and evidence like facts, examples, and personal stories to support their beliefs. When have you heard a speaker whose presentation was convincing? What techniques—such as sharing personal experiences—did that speaker use to influence you? Share your experiences with a partner. Discuss the methods good public speakers use to be persuasive.

Reading Strategy Evaluate Argument

To

evaluate

is to form an opinion or make a judgment about something you read.

As you read “And Ain’t I a Woman?,” evaluate Truth’s arguments to see if they are effective. Does she persuade you to take her position on issues?

To practice evaluating argument, create a chart like the one below. Take a position, either for or against the statement. Write your position on the top line. Then think of three arguments supporting that position. Write them in the chart’s three upper boxes.

Then trade with a partner. Read their position, and for each of the arguments, write your evaluation in the box below it. Say whether you find the argument persuasive, and explain why or why not.

Statement: Some people think that school days should begin an hour later.

Position:

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Argument: Argument: Argument:

Evaluation: Evaluation: Evaluation:

Vocabulary Usage

One way to understand the meaning of a new word is to think about its part of speech and how that part of speech is used in sentences. Look at the definitions and parts of speech for the words in the minor column of this page. Say each word. Then write it in the sentence. Read the sentences to understand how each word is used in context.

word

racket borne oblige

Vocabulary

racket

( rakʼ ̇it )

n. loud noise; clamor; din

borne

( bôrn

) v. past participle of bear; given birth to; produced

oblige

( ə blijʼ )

v. to make grateful or indebted; to do a favor or service for sentence

We could not hear the speaker’s words over the

________________

made by the audience.

The ideals

________________

during the abolition and women’s movements still affect the lives of every American citizen.

Truth was happy to

________________

her audience in its request to hear her speak.

And Ain’t I a Woman?

117

First Proof

Second Proof

Third Proof

PDF Proof

Template

First Proof

Second Proof

Third Proof

118

And ain’t I aWoman?

Vocabulary

racket

( rakʼ it

) n. loud noise; clamor; din

Vocabulary Skill

Usage

The word racket can refer to a sound that is very unpleasant.

Use racket in a sentence to describe a very unpleasant sound.

______________________________

______________________________

______________________________

Literary Element

Oratory

Why is this highlighted passage from Truth’s speech an example of oratory? Place a check next to the correct answer below.

Truth uses her own experiences to persuade others to adopt her views.

Truth boasts that she is superior among women and should be listened to.

Truth uses logic to show that women are equal because she was not unhappy as a slave.

Well, children, where there is so much racket there must be something out of kilter.

1

I think that ’twixt

2

the Negroes of the South and the women at the North, all talking about rights, the white men will be in a fix pretty soon. But what’s all this here talking about? That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! And ain’t

I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm. I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head

3

me! And ain’t I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man—when I could get it—and bear the lash as well! And ain’t I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen them most all sold off to slavery, and when

I cried out with my mother’s grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain’t I a woman?

Then they talk about this thing in the head; what’s this they call it?

[Intellect, someone whispers.] That’s it, honey. What’s that got to do with women’s rights or Negroes rights? If my cup won’t hold but a pint, and yours holds a quart, wouldn’t you be mean not to let me have my little half-measure full?

Then that little man in black there, he says women can’t have as much rights as men, ’cause Christ wasn’t a woman! Where did your Christ come from? Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman!

Man had nothing to do with Him.

Vocabulary

borne

( bôrn

) v. past participle of bear; given birth to; produced

1.

2.

3.

The phrase

out of kilter

means “out of order” or “mixed up.”

Twixt

is a shortened form of betwixt, an Old English word meaning “between.”

Here, Truth uses

head

to mean “to do better than” or “to get ahead of.”

First Proof

Second Proof

Third Proof

PDF Proof

If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back, and get it right side up again! And now they is asking to do it, the men better let them.

Obliged to you for hearing me, and now old Sojourner ain’t got nothing more to say.

And Ain’t I a Woman?

Reading Strategy

Evaluate Argument

Who is the

“little man in black”? Why do you think Truth points him out during her speech? Write your answer on the lines below.

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

Vocabulary

oblige

( ə blijʼ

) v. to make grateful or indebted; to do a favor or service for

M Y N O T E S

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

And Ain’t I a Woman?

119

First Proof

Second Proof

Third Proof

PDF Proof

120

After You Read

Connect to the Speech

And ain’t I aWoman?

In a small group, discuss how reading the selection has affected your ideas about responding to unfair or unjust treatment. What have you learned from Sojourner

Truth’s views and experiences on this issue? Report your answers to the class.

Literary Element Oratory

What is the purpose of Sojourner Truth’s speech?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

What speaking techniques does Truth use to help her achieve her goal?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Reading Strategy Evaluate Argument

Look back at the reading chart you began for page 117. With the experience you had evaluating argument in that exercise in mind, fill in the chart below with

Sojourner Truth’s arguments from “And Ain’t I a Woman?”. What is the argument behind each assertion? Evaluate whether you think each assertion is effective and explain why or why not. The first assertion and argument have been filled in for you.

Assertions

“I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me.”

Argument

She is as physically strong as a man, not helpless like most men believe of women.

Effectiveness

First Proof

Second Proof

Third Proof

PDF Proof

After You Read

And ain’t I aWoman?

Vocabulary

A. Word Meaning

Complete the following activity to help explore the meanings of the boldfaced vocabulary words.

racket borne oblige

1.

Which word has to do with making someone grateful? Place a star next to it.

2.

Circle the vocabulary word that might describe a type of sound that would cause you to cover your ears.

3.

Underline the vocabulary word that has to do with bringing something to life.

B. Usage

Respond to these statements to help you explore the meanings of vocabulary words from the selection.

1.

Describe a time in which you caused or heard a

racket.

__________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________

2.

Describe something a friend might do to make you feel

obliged.

__________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________

3.

Describe one thing that might be

borne

from another.

__________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________

And Ain’t I a Woman?

121

First Proof

Second Proof

Third Proof

PDF Proof

Template

First Proof

Second Proof

Third Proof

122

After You Read

And ain’t I aWoman?

Argument Chart

An argument chart can help you compare two opposing viewpoints. It can also help you analyze a speaker’s arguments presented as support for his or her views.

Reread Sojourner Truth’s speech. Then, in the top box, enter her viewpoint on women’s rights. In the boxes beneath, enter the main arguments she makes in this speech. In the boxes beneath, recap the examples she uses to support those arguments. In the final row, write the opposing argument to which you think she is responding.

Viewpoint:

Argument:

Example:

Argument:

Example:

Argument:

Example:

Opposing Argument: Opposing Argument: Opposing Argument:

First Proof

Second Proof

Third Proof

PDF Proof

Download