Victim of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland: Fact\on

advertisement
John
Dudley,
Duke of Northumberland:
Victim of Fact\on
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0
f'r:Jllowin~1
coup
i n t r " ~:I u f::'
n a 1"1 d F' 0 1 i t: i c a'l
,3
DudleY'"
U1 / ,:,:,.
Edward
Priut,J
de~lth
'I':.
Councillot",
~ctlons ar-e often misconstr-ued as
I I
1-,', ';'.
I·t
1"",'
t i
(i
r, C'.
1..1 (.,.,
,'·~If·-c·i:·~ntf.'·,-ed~
1 ') f
t·
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rn I', i
r- n n ,'.-. p .', r ""I t
e
r
('I
·,c,
(I
I·'
<':1
t
t E'rn p t
lat"ge
pet"ceiued
con::.piracy,
the
d'::'.
d F" 0 1 i t.
f.-:'
E': n t
t h d nth 0
"". ,:'"
0
1'0
'I C ill
1
:lohn
H',e,:.
lei:Jder.
those of' an ambitious
d i f f (.= I'
h
a
tl-If"
indiuidual,
f
h
i.,-:;
pee I" -':'. .
I_I
r'1
.-3 C t;
of
l·i·,.-.t'll"!l]
,.. -.•: ,':,1-
ion:'.,
[1ud-Icl,."~·:'
b 'J l:
a
1 "':-:' 0
u'ltirt'lcJte di-::.grac(::' re·::.ulted not
fro m the bet r'
a ')
,1'!
0
f
hi,:,'. f
e
1 -I () w
I"~ ~'. •
t'·-'.-!',:)I:·,·I~=·,hrn,,:,,nt
I:'
In u c
hOI,leul:?t"
H;"'I",r" '.'
nf1;"~'r'
not
wa5
t h f'"
wlt'h
1 ('-' t'
hi:·tor·;.-::rf'ls hdt)e.' unfairly portraved hirrr c,5 el)il, uncaring
'1'7.dt'"·"'"
In.-I
(I I I
,,:1 C
n 1 tho u q h
.
t" U
opl'-cned thf':~ door-
of Henl"'; !.JIll,
p(li "I-i,·,,·:'
w·j tho Ij t; a
coupl(;"d
death,
H'I-:"
•
1 "'" f t
d
~.~ t..
/:'j
<3
T! T
t
to
of men.,
C h CJ rn [,
t' f:'
'Ieft
d 1 ed.,
council
nl.lrnber"
,:1
e
II
1 t'j 't r.
C!
pr-Of) i -":,. ion'",
the
OU('?I',:,ee
Engli.",h
inc1udinq Edl...lard
fOI"
thc·
~1()Uernrnf:nt:
Seymout",
"Th'er··!r··
f F n q 1 ,:';3 rl de,.," HF' n r- Y' .' .: --' u ill con t 'i n I.J j·C· d
,::~
~
f t h f":
in a1'1
"I.·,t"·:'I'·'· ':·CI"I'-:f'-'-:I·"f'lir"J t,,]th h'i,:,', pr··jf.},::lte aff,:3vr'f::'S dnd publ icq"
OJ 1 f ,''1 V I' e ~':,
(j f
t h 1':':' F: e a 1 rn (':'? W'I 1 1 i n 9 ·oj n d c h ,:':I '" ~1 i n g the m ill n Ii
euery of them a5 they mU5t and 5ha11 aunswer at the day
of Judgement truely and fully to 5ee this my Last Will
p'for-med in all things wt' asrt'loch spede and diligence as
rt'I~Y' be and that noon of thern presume to medle ut' any of
OUt" tree)::.'r- or to do anv thing appoincted by our- 5C:lVd
LI',-ll':'Ilc'l"Ie onle5 the rt'IClO:,,,t part of the ho'le nornbre of
their coe~eclJtours doc consent and by writting agree to
bl,,:"
1..1
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t ! 'f'"
......:
0 "
r'
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Pl'-
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f,:.,·f';c, ...,,:t::'.(.,-,::!
,- e cut 0 IJ r' ::. and
Clur ·:,~,·:j'ld ':'·.Clnrle
co IJ n::· ,::1
",
1 10
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0
prirlce Fdl,J,~jrd("·:
lff-'t·'J:::'·::~I·:",,j·inq·=,
t"IH',"!
n
rl.
dfJal1"l5t
1~;I:';3,fI
Ladv
.Jdne
Grf:':V,
,''Itld
B f:oO'!plptf' Collectipn of
<i!pd f'rpu::'qdip,;!",. fpC Hj'~h TU-'d':-'-,OD and other Cr jrnf"" {H'I'!
from the F&1rJ'le~'.t f'er'IQd to the Year 1?8~, Ed. T, B,
lJo·l. 1 (London: T. C. Hdn~:.ard. 1816) 748"'-49.
'<Iclte Tr i"'jl,,;
tl't"·:d('-'-C'jrn(It-,~·
Howel'!,
be
,'lIllf"-'
""di
",t·
t: ,:)
':'("'I""",i',
"'...
Although no man in particular was given preference, John Dudley and
HBefore
Howar 0::1:,;.
learning of Henry's death,
the former
Imperial
. observed that Hertford [Seymour]
ambassador [Eustace] Chapuys .
dnJ
Lisle [Dudley] would have 'the management of affairs. because,
d I" i'
1"1 ,)
.,
0
t ~', ':':'.' t-
n ,) b 1 t·:, :'.'.
Co
liE
',1",::.[" 'itdtC:d,
1[",
fact,
waco.
d
t h c.:
V 'I
fit
and a to I 1 I t Y f
<::, 9 (':'
may
been
have
the
flt
the t ,:~:,. k . '
f
::' C. () OJ
'"I t
L
with
S e y rt' 0 uri a n
j ,,:.
'1 e,. ,
J 0 hn
"L
rule,
0 I"
wa::·
UII!
1",1' i)
0 1-
it
cl ::;.
dll'ect contt"adic.tion of Henl"Y·'::· wi 1'1
ale t t e r
1 f",
,:'1
Seymour
Although
II
f
Dud'l e y ,
the
"3
t. I t 1 e
t o t h t·; F' ,- i ,) Y C () U n c i 1 wr itt f': n a to 0 u t
wa3
Wi th h i
Ear' 1
1 ~; ~=; 1.
:::0
af
::; h fc'
It is no small greyf to me to parceyve that they whom the
te my fathE:'r (who:::.e :;.ou Ie God pcll'(:lon) fI"Iade~ in
thys worlde of nothyng in respecte of that they be comme
to nowe, and at hy::. la::.t ende put in tru::.te to 5e hy"::'
!.L, i I r.('-c!"·fDi..i,-r,·p.'d. i.i:·,eI"Uiyt:O they \.)(:"'.'I-e <0:111 '::.I,.Jo!-ne upon (:"'1
:, .• k~,·;
it '~i'·'/':"i.)f:~th f,·,f.": T::,ay. fa,·" the 'Iove I
heart::: to
1<.""1""1,]::' Md.
C
(I
:"j
i::'Dth hC'i.,le: they brt:,:al;e: h 1::. Wv 11. and wh,:"lt
thE'Y take upon theyrfl. in rnakyng (el''"'' they
': ·Et WE' ";:. bot h c. 1 f::: <:~ nco n t r E~ rye t 0 h ~J:;. pro c (.:~ d y n ~1 ~:'. and
ti:'
::.(,'11,.)
::·f;:
power'
"'·.Uir~:,,;,,'d
.' t )
Wyll. and also agf.":ynst the coustome of all crystendome.
and (11"1 my con3cyence) ageynst the lawe of God and hys
..,
'·:.. '.. .ll·,i.t:
i.,.,;;,',.,
.i
il
t
::;~: d
1."
[!.i·'·C'j·,
3D.::'1 n i E'I F' d t ,.• i"j>
~·:orU,ur,·,i:,('·:'rl,:jrllj:
1.:",,': C,:' 1.1,:,iw1CI· ,':II",d
t i'.' F' r ('';:"" ;:'. 1 7' ? 3) 4 1 ,
,i·e:! .... " ' ·
f.l! 11"1~,l'rt'll:,-I~
'I C
k
n '" () w n.,
Duke
T h f:: F' ,-
Co
(jf
tee t
1',:.I·;"\"·;'.:a·1 .intl" lque 11"1 the
()~):t:li·:,j,
Wt~··::::·,t
Hi5'L,:)I·-·ic.31
The F'o11tica'l
~~()I-thlJ"ilibel"'land
0
Career of ,John
(I~ent,
Oh'lo:
d the N () I" t h 1..1 hi b e r 1 d n d
of Edw<'Hd VI (Ventul",'I,
t- d ted n
f~(·,,:·iqn
Publications,
19B1)
10.
uhlche ri':,'" "i',·thE:,11
":I',lre'he,,',
rh'!
rc:flec:!:':;.
l,:,·t;t:'"r'
the
tut"moll
the
rC"'.'I':c·,4
(;()ntrou~'=1-":::'V
dnd
Although well-versed
lnf:,:"ffe1:tl'}f::'-ly
1"1,'1(,",-:1
fellow
councilors
heated
debate
duto(;r-atlcally.
and
who
had
him
chosen
in
state
::',lowly
be
to
lJhich
f',llE'd
effalrs,
alienatinsr
hr
hi,:",
Protectorate after
a
Councll~
within
Wp therefore, the archbishop and others whose namE'S be
hi'· ,.
t (I -:;, u h;" c r I he d, b V () I.J r whole con "c', e nt, con C Cl I' d. ,e'l n d
, : I I r' (~,," III "" nt,
u p tJ n rfI ,,1 t u t.. e con 5 Ide rat ion 0 f
t; h e t; end e r' n e '5 "',
;1,,1 p"'c"'irnlt',1 of ""Iood b",:,·tween our::.ol..'E?t-eign
lord tha'!:
nnw 15, and the said Earl of Hertford, by ulrtue of the
')I!'I-h')ritl,' ~lil)(-?n unt:cl 1.1:;, hI,) the ~':,ald \.1111 ('~nd te::,tartle'nt
'I 1 :' I! 1 " : '•.':1 i d
'1.9 t e ',I) I) e ,., e i q n 'I J) r d and ma ~:. t e r for t he do i n ';1
<'I: .:11';',' ~Ict or <:'Ict';. . that rna \' tend to the honor' and suretl,'
II 1: 0 1.1 1" "". 0 I ! f:" r' (,'" '1 :J n
1 I) t- d t h <:1 t n 0 L.I i C'"
0 r
-f: 0 r the ad,} (:~ nee rfl e~ n t
n r h'",... a f f a i t" s, h a u e 9 i I.) f::' nun t () h', I'll the' chi e f p'l (:3 C e d I'n () n ~]
I I'"
.']", d .';l! 'or· () t h (" n d rile and ti t 'I e
() f the Pro tee tor 0 f cl 'I 1
I' '" c:'
red 1rn
,':1 n d
d Cl fI'I 'I n 'Ion ':c, (I f
the kin~] / :::; fI'I (:) j e::', t~) .,
and
f',,!' :',
"JoIH~r''',or
hi,,::, rno:':.t royal per~',on, with the advice clnd
res t () f
t, he e x (,~ cut 0 r ::' 'J
in':". U c h fI'I i:l nne r' ,
order and fonll .::l-::. in the w'i 11 of our late 50'.Jerei'~FI 10l"d
i·':'. appointed and pt"e.,;,cribed, wh~ich the ::,aid Earl hdth
of
con :". e-, t
Cl f
rrorn;~ed
dernof'l':'.tr·dted
f'':lith
con t r () 1 0 fEn
,: 'J I'll pi E:" 1; E'
hi~
to perform accordingly,)
",'hi,s
DC""'I' i 1:,,:,:,
the
ultimate
nddin;1
to
SeVfI'Iour / ::-.
m(:'t"t"I,llnq
rl.l'~!':' I",
! U!
II
I
I"
Thf:'
":':
.;..'...:1.;..1...
' 1-"_'I..I....
".~h
~.
__. I.I·.;. 1",i....'".....t,;.:;(.lt'
. ......
i I ,
Ed.
!'.-i',I'I·'!, T!··ph':le.I:,. ,:'Hld
1;(,,1,'
e"1
fi :' r.! ::.
'1', I"
!eli
t
:.-.".!",-,
'l"n
,
'
(l
n
I] ,
1 and; ' :' ,
,::1
f f a I
thf::'~
I' :"
council,
dnd
h I':.
'I
Seymour'
nco rn pet e n c e
de5ired
1 e:: d
to
de~truction.
Rfter
r:;
I)
bV
n I'> I' I, CI n ~'
t h f"
fl ,,'., :a
t h
and Co.,
diff'lcu'lt',e-::.
the
Queen
wa':.
Dowaget-
hi,':',
brother,
Thomc:l~':.
Parr
(<:1 fact
Cath(,::'t"ine
1"1.;:lr" ') to
onr,,:~
of the~ 1<", 1"19' '5
Q ,. i 1;11 n t? J L e" t; t:f.~ r c. 1 J 1 iJ'''' t r '=:1 t I ve {J r
HI':'~ n r \' Fl 'I i ,c:. ,
I
~".e r' i ,;:~ ::'. ,
1J D 'I.
I :r
( Lon d Cl n :
L;':"p':'Hd, :1824,.1 161"-1/,;:.
F '" '::'
':' f
F'
1"1
1""::"":'3.::.
t: l ' 1 >I,
1
J
,:k:,'.
F)
187~)
.!,Hw..i"",".:..:.1'..:.:(L'lI..r,:,}1~.:.nl..i'!"':--\oE...ru.,l.:.Iq...i'lu·'-OI.'jUD.lodL-..Lt..Jt_-:.I,(')J.lfll..l--It<.lIu.HIiliZ"'~EL..-.saE'lL..11..J..1_(u.).L.t
b (,~, 1: h, I) (l 1
U ( He I.J Y n r k:
~; C t- Ibn F: r 'J
'I ;:: "'j
19
i)ffended Sorfler::.f:':t dccordin~l
wl,'ich
mdrrlag~
a
1'/
J
between her and Edward VI.
I.
t 'i
1",.
,~!
'0' c t
:'c,
i:,
h c'i
;: 0 i",'" P i
'I 1 V
f.::,~:ecu
I 'I c, w hi::, b 1-
t,I':":
~:: G flit? t- ::. e
U t;
j..'
,'lff',
he 1- a
r t h I" (l1,.j
0') e
t; ()
i- E: .j
c. n e d U '" t::: d
By the year
t
t
0
L 0
hi,::.
rilffl i t
Unfortunately
fa 1 r
t t- 1 a 'I
b r' () the I ' .
him
for
aqajn~t
his
his
UpOl'
flUl'lIbi."I"
1 .: •.,., )
of
[:;.:1,'1
Somerset,
f u ,- the rex po::', e d h 1:;.
former
ally
1 iff:." by
::,; i (
may
Dud1e'-).
haue
C.:~thol Ie
of other' r,'",':·n.
a 1". d
'I
11"1
thi:':.
P t- () tee t ()
T D we r
his
I" ,
d 1"1
d
refusal
1 n <::\ d e qua c i e ::,.
1549. a coal \tion opposing Somerset began to form
U,':il"W·ICk • •John
01.,11"1
the
t o t h (:?
Among the men
thE"
failed,
Wh i 1 (7:
I
,',(jen;Ud
<)
SeYlflour
Although this plan
ilHc:)
1 :, i
.,'.
Thollid'::'
0'
,!
I' ,: .. :'" ';
t
6
VI ).
Edward
to
Hi-::.
been
in this
deci::.ion
c<::\used
conspi,"atol"::.. 7
by
~; 0
u t h wE"l
collectiuely
take
action
the attempt
Nel.}erthel(~::.:'.,
inc1udir'9 Wr'iothe-::.ley (Earl
f\ i .: h.::. " d
to
group was
made
he dnd
of Southarnptol"l).
petitioned
the
king
1.1' th,:'" Ou:\''.:': of ~;ofll.::r'~:.c~t woold at any tyrne hdUf:c halrd our'
'-::1.:1,; '\ ':"'"'''''' if he we,o 'I d h,:lue hc:'lrd reaE.on. dnd know ledged
II \ [I. :;~ e 'I f
o:'l
::. u b J e ct.
0 I.J I"
fI'I e 03 n 1 n '3 s
wa -::. t 0 h a u e q I.J i e t 1 y
614 .
Edward
'I '/U f:,1
1<.
VI.
,]ord,"ll"l,
(Ithaca,
7'J
Guy,
" U 1'II'I
-:;'1 Z .
Tudor
Thf:'·
New
Chl"gr;icle and F'oliticcJl Paper::. of f\ i nq
York: Cornell Uniuerslty Pr'e5=., 1966) 6.
Enqland
(New
York:
Oxford
Uniuer-::.ity Press,
r::
"'"
,I
~ald
of
',1'
1.."""1',
h ,':1 n C f:-~ n f
''-''''j
II'
'I ,,', ", I I Y'
Duke
f () r
o
'
the
goeth
r"'J;~h(-:~
'i'-',
r
III~,'
t,',
fe',' rc,'drF::','-',f" ",1' ..-",11 t",'in'J':~' '.I'j'j-h"".ft
h ''':' r ,"'.'.-':l 1rn ~ b 1.1 t k n 0 I.J 'I ['I 9 aft; e:' r' war- d '=, t h d t
about
to
reysE
I::
I::':'
f
d
ti':':I:"'~"'':~fl'ible,
great
'::.lc':lIJnderou~:,
to "',pr'p"de '":"Ibrode
I"<'IC"I"I"
"j F":'
h'lfli
forces and nombers
and untrue r'eap()rt~:",
.'::ind I"eputdtinns, I.JC~
f:"Jnt",,:1,"\' tu C,I..II' h()n(ir~:',
I:) r"
t h eo rnc:·? t; i n 9 t.: t'l e,'t,... LJ i t; h.,
2.1~;I d
.'1
I"I~, t;
w i "1 ')
r
0 U
~::.
i t Slreueth 1..1';:, to ::'(0'(':' what daun~Jer clnd
per"lll
rn,':iV en~:,ue to th/ole Realrlle thorou!3h dlt!is;ol"l
~mon~5
ourselfs.
we
have
lykewise
thought
good
to
"!I]nifif::' 1,Into you that 'If the ~,:"aid Duke will, a5 becometh
d
q'-')ud::.ub,'lect ab",'-,ent hirnself
from
hi~"
M,'9je:';,ti(':~,
be','
contented to be or"dred .::lecor-d'ing to JI.I5tice and rea501"l,
cHI d d i ,:,. P e t";:-' e t hat for c e w hie h i -:;', 1e~ u i e d b y him, ~J e w i l l
':tI'~ldlV
c::omrnen
w'lth
'iOU touchin9 the ~:,lJel"tie of h'IS,
Majestie/s person, and order of all other things, wherin
1,11':': f'I () th i n IJ doub t,
what =.oeuer" hath by n 0 the I" wi '5e un t I' ue" 1 y
ree'1pOt-ted, I,;;'OU shall ft,.'nde IJ-:;', bothe conformab'le i:~nd redt,'
to do as· becorl'lrneth IJood 5ubjectf.. and true cOljn5e11or~':~.
not h 'I n g dOl:' b t8'1 n ~1 to f V n d the 1 ike con for rn it', e ,':i 1 ~:, 0 (J n
V (l 1,1 J' b reo h d If,:, ,
l.,.ke as
WhF'!'1 W,cirw'I.:;!<
I.Ja-;:, 5ent I'lorth
opportunity
to
I,! c:ll" I,J 'I r: k
I, "ft,
W!'
t: :",
c'l
i
c":
IJ r'
t e
r',.1 ,3 r"
0 U
rea!lZ1ng
I """,
cl
II
i c I-:
nf
de ':c,
t:hc':~
'I t- e
'.I
wh'lr::h fo'llol.II';,,1,
=,
r" F.:' t u '" ned
0
f
,:'~n
d
Somerset
deman ded
"n ()
I)I't1V
':',tr]f'ld'lnIJ
f
the
t ()
L0
0
1"1
,::Jr'm l/
After
improued,
mo r e t :
h.:~n
that
the
Q
land,::;. ,,;
own
in
thf"
Eng'land
hr",
enablinq
co all t ion ,
don
,:~ 5
vic tOt" •
he
'::\ 1 5
0
ret urn e oJ
-::. u F' pOt" t ,
oPPo5itiol"l
I::, r, d,,,, e t
8p
l
the
rt d:-~ ~.1 ell
the
successfully
r- ebe 15
KettI::, Hebell ion,
put; down
be good plowmen and harrow their
,::'''f''trn
i"',
,:1', (' t
'0
the
rebels
:''-'!'\'
I,',
b d IJed
',,1.1
rlefeated
remove
to help
pcp u '" t
1.,1
he ua5
i t h r) Ij t
facing,
t h (':7<
took
the
king
Hampton
:r n t h e "'I e(=,' k ::',
F' f" i \) V C() IJ n c i 1
the two 'Jr'OIJP~' c()rre~::~ponded
to
in hope':', of reconci 1 inq
R''I,'C ,,'I","',
et
a1,
"Divers
Lords
from
the
Protectorship,"
1549, CLXXII. Dr;l;lins'd Letter-"', Illu5trat',ve pf
" I., ; I i ','-, h H 'j ~':', t q t' ',I , E d
Henr"v Ell1:=.,
I",erle~:"
Un1,
II
(Lone/on:
I-/,'!I d iI"':::"
r,' i phc10h ,':;nd Lepard. 1824) 167-168,
F', ;,'" f":"
8/, ,
t'
N(1rthl!,.nl'I('~Tland:
The
F'pljt'lcaJ
Career
qf
,JQhn
Dljdh'\!
(
u
the gouernment;
yet,
as
time passed,
Somerset's
support
dwindled,
because of his mIlitary
successes
Tower,
Oudlev,
'in
the apparent
'I::,
t'lc,I'th,
the
:::,pi;=arheade:l
thE':'
,':"" (:; I:.: ~"!: d hi::, t
C! I'
i
()ften
plot;
d
n '5.
I,..,hich
hC.~jjE:')f':I',
the Oud'Ii;:~y
recent
pel'ceilJed
aga'in-:,.t
t ()
problem:::.
leader
faction
Ii
the
In
collectively
Wr
itte n
by
=.
who
plotted
i n t e r pI" eta t i
0
rl
and
h c1 :;'.
(,) fEn'] 1 and's pol i tic (:'l 1
all
developed,
1e t t e r
Illan
Th i
SorflerE.et.
blank:' D I,; d 1 f5.· Y f () I"
thereafter
development.
a::;
point
moved
of
,:,~~ainst
Sorlie r ::. e t
t
0
reference,
Somerst::t;
LJ at" w i c k
0
n
"Mt,! Lord. I C.:HI'lot per,:.u'9de rny:::.elf that there I=:. any i l l
,.',i,i,-,:' ';,,:,'d 'i,', '"QUI' :',i:':'c",I't <35 Df your::.f::,'lf ~ol~F]In:':.t I'Ile; for
:":,,,:;:; :,:1"..;::, :,.:il',',·,'" ':'.E:"'::'i'.'f:':~;h lrnpD::.::.1t.le th(~'it I,.lhEo'l"e ther'i": hath
I, _ i,',' , 1- i' .J r" ;) Co uri,) 0 u t h ,'j 1"1 d HI 1 Ii e ::,. () ~~ r t':: a t i':1 f r i end ::' hip and
"'j mit y
b f::~ t 1,.1 'i i<, t U :::. • a E· (I f!:~ V e r for rn y p a I" t t o n 0 rn a n w ':1':':'·
glcater. now 50 suddenly there should be hatred; and that
w';th(i,..It just caU5e. what::.oe\Jel'" rumour5 and bruit::., Olr
:-;', ",:,.",iC),', c,';:
,:.th.""I'::', 1'0':"')0'; ffl(Jued ',IOU to conceiuf::::' in thf::-:'
5;i:i:,I~ "1,",.:1 )i"i,j'::If'lent Gf ,:,lifii9hty God,
I pr"otest dnd affllrrn
til 'I:':'. "I,to ;,lOU, I ne'-)('-:I" fI'Ie,:''lnt wOI"se' to i,jDU th<:ln to rllY5elf;
Whf:::lrefiJt"e rnylord. for God's :'oake, for flrlend::.h'lp, fol"
t:('lr'c' I Clve that hath evel" been b€':tw i:..:t u::. or that hel"ed'l"tf::t"
m~y be, persuade i,jour5elf with truth, and let thi5 tIme
,.i, \: : i', ' ("
t ()
,1'1;::
<::1 i"I d
the
w0 r 1 d
you r
j u '::. t
h () nor
d nd
perseJerance in friendship, the which God be my wltne55,
WI'ILl ::,i;:?eth ",11
heal"ts, Wd::, ne':rO diHI'ini::.hed,
nOt" euer"
:::.1,,:,1'1 b(',:,' wh'l 1 st 1 1 i ve
DLspite
of
the
this
past
Council
and
friendship,
pondered
Dudley and
aS50ciate5
took
control
Somerset'::, fate.
Witt', ~;Orfi',,:Jset ::,c:1fely committed to
the Tower, the PlrlUY C(lune; 1
,..'1
O::~C'i,et-~;,e't
",:1'11,',,=,::1
nf
con5pit-acie~:.
trea",:',uroy.
thE:"
offfc:fI-::.e,:,:'.
tl":i'li.;orou':.
for
forgiueness.
F C' b I"
U
W'I t h i n t h ,,~
"',)IJer 1'lr1J(7."nt<"!l
by
'I
=.
~) () m~':~ r' ~', e
War~Jick
t',::Hlk,<c,
1~~'::lde"-5
nl:h,,:"r'
to
1,1':'11'1:;
twa s
not
nudl~:"y,
.k,; bat ed,
cldrifications;
yet,
For'
of
H a a k / :;.
documentation
i n =, tan c e,
plot
c:har';Jed
validity
0 .'::1 1 e
a
is
this
in
Ill',
":
rrl"I~·'
d
ted •
rny
1e t
!.oJ d
r w 'I c k
Lord'-=:.
conspiracv.
ki""
to
Dudle).I dnd
tred::.on.
with
confe5sion
b (j () k
has
w ill
been
rn c~ k f::
In exi::.tence which refers to
E d war d V I
wr i t e
chronicle in an entry dated October 7,
t':? d
rll 'I
frClfl'1 got.Jernmentdl
for the 0 rn 'j n 9
hi~
d ,...
t ()
Somerset
ualidi 1:y.
Whereupon
1i
war.
it;,:;.
, :1 :":" ('!
u ere 1 oy
on
houeuer, Sir' Thort',,3::. Palmer expo-::.ed
faction
The
hop e l' u 1 1 Y
and
con ten t
d'I':'::.trEj(~t Wc:it'"wick
for-rnulated
dinner;
d
DlJdley/-:',
k'll1
-::. e
the Tower
kept: the countrv f,.-orn bein~~ torn in t:~,ln
~~;(Irnet"':'et
ion
dl.1rin'~
and
F·"ot,
in re,:,::.pon':"'.c,
from
:~'.
and
commendably, he was readmitted to the Council.
C f) U n c i ",
dF"Pf.:-,.-,':')t
W ,,:,;}
Elbu":',P'.
"rebel:::,.,"
!::offlet-'::.et.
rl'l 0 b i l i t Y
potentially deua-::.tating political
a
II'
t:he
U p 0 n r e " e a ::. e, h
the countr'\1 =jnd i:ittc·fIlpted to
r'un
louer' cld55
the
Council 11
the
':'1ga'lfI";:.t
~ehauing
but after
with
He was subsequently reledsed
1~; ~ 2 .
a r' y 6,
,3rtion::~,
C:Clunt',;". (if dict,3tot"idl
uat'iclu:",
of
=.
abo u t
t hi,::. p"
cHI
'I
n
1551:
qar'den he [Sir Thomas F'a"rnet.. ]
Howat St, George's Oay 1 d~E.t. fny
E'_f'Wal'(.,
J
,
""";"
,""1'..
1 ''',r'd
f'I" ClI':,'::'r:'tor,
!'-Ot'
M'I 'sdf~rnt':?,",nout. ,:,:,. (:Jrld
Hi qh
I"~,
Ij ,
' I "'" (! D.I I 1~, (I ," A r: C) ro I" 'I e ,~ F'? en! 1E' C t j p n Q f ;:~ t d I C"
/'11'1.-1
f'r('icP'E"d'jr";l'"
For Hj';lh Tred;.no and pther Crjwf.:"'=, dnd
I" ','"
",
,.,t"
,,'
'
I
r:r
";
: I'! ' I ,
II
f',,.'ocee(J'inq~".
'. .
.
11"1
ro::lr'
[Co
t
1.3rnen,
.,.
.
t
aqalf',s"
l'I'I·d"'llJf:'~dnnr:'i;
frqm tht'" Ear-lje,·'.t f'1""rjQd to the YI"'ar J7B'?, Ed. T.
Howe",
1
l)o'l.
(London:
T.
C.
Hansard,
1816)
509-"~d.2.
n,
8
Lord Somerset
went to raise the people, and the
L,:ord
GI'ey
bfE:forfE:,
to
know
who
were
hi=~
friend,;:..
Afterward a device was made to call the Earl of Warwick
to a banquet with the Marquis of Northam~ton and divers
ot:hE'r,::s] and to cut off theil~ head::..
A15o, if he found
a bare company about them by the way, to set upon them.
'TI,t,~ ')bl idlty
One
ir,'"o
,:,', :,.j,'.J\';\;:;I"'.':.
I;.)ic~.
~:;ir
of
the
Thi,::. man
Berteu',ll(':.'·.
mo;::;t
que~=.t'lon(:lble·
irnpri;;:.oned
Wei::;·
VI
Edward
t',irll on Dec>:::n',ber 3,
I;.;
,,' : 1'1 C
h ~: h In,] E\ f': I~ t e
tJ
:::
t, l
'. 0
iii <'c
Despite
was
the
1",
a,: =t u i t; ted
q
0
d
this
1 <':l t
pro u ide d
rl d
force
0f
behind
the
n Jan u a r V 2 2,
c ha r
1 ~-)~::; 2 .
~;I eo
1- f.':: '1
ed
h i rfl wit h
of
0f
I'
,,:. t','
I',,':
ledl]
WeE,·
wl,'I.,;hl,':,ad
the
..lOi,.]EtI' .•
LL •
(I
.'
never
1 i \) i n ~l
qua r t e
for
and
n 9 h i -::; pee r'
"5,
'j
d
's . 14
disclo5ure.
t rea :;. 0 rl)
(:"3 m 0
1-
Pd
it
felony
eve n t u a 1
~:i 0
rn e r
the verdict
~:. t::"
t
was
fr'orn the Chdfflber with the dxe turned dga'inst hirn,
pf::.ople
Cll..lt::.ide
to
be'lieve
1"
,J.
was
ne 1- t e v i l l e,
d
After
1~:.,",:1,
refers
d 'j d H a rflfft () n d ,
conviction
h 19 h
LJ n pop IJ 1 d
n d ",. 0
Palmer's
Somerset's
::;.
d
confession
iE 1-
questionable validity
motivating
( hew a :;.
t:. (Y.' : 1e <:":1 d i
the
n. con f eo:. ~:. ed,
0
the C co u n ell
,
d (':.', b t ::.,
hi::.
Cl ':
c" C t
aftE"I'
"Thf.': Duke [Sorner::.etJ told certc.iin Lord:::.
Strangely,
I ...
I 1",1'
I ! co t r 1 <:1 1 .
,,13
J..
1
1~~~;-J.,
i 11 e. e i( a ffl 'i ned
'J
•
:j j' 1
tht'~
of P.:::ilrfHO'·r'::;. te:;.tirftOny 15 debatable becau,,:.e of
1'1'1<: Chror'li,:;'le
and Political
the:lt
SOft"ter::.et
had
been
Pi:jper:":. of 1<'jn'J Edl,Jard VI
,
13,
,Je,j-,,:I':ln,
The Chl'onic'le dnd Politicdl F'dpel"5 of l<'lnq Edwdl-d VI
100.
14 •.1 ,,,''.
_I _
'
'..I;oJ I I ,
r I'
I
i':~
Ch r c,;-, i c .: e d rt d P () 'I i
t
'I C
d'l
P "j per::;.
0
of ~\ i n oJ
E d W d r' d V I
Pf':"opl,cc",
"Thf?
dn"':'f'I 1-,'11'1'",=;:,
!:
r [,,',
P 1 ,;, 'I
11",'ln::,
t:I',e
'-I
'"C)
'I t,.',
101.11:1 that fr'orn
'" n
PUPI.ll"'lt-it')
l1ii':i1"l
Thl.l::"
r ',: r-:-:,' d
I', (', "-,
I';
,:11' r i
't 1 " t i
1..1 rn C'1
,,,rnon'j
r ':;,
thf:C::
took
thr'?
t h d thE:'
(;it;,"enl",J
to
fJ;.:::lt:ter,~',hC'1uted
be
1.1
a5
qui t
he'lped
of
a
() f
"",,way
re,,,,.pon;:,;ble:'
control
half
,'j
it: wc~'5 hedrd ,0t Chf.:lr'in~~
",:he ha'il door'
I.,J E' 1"1 t
bel'Ie",)f:,:d
Oudle')
rt
~:I
H(:' 1"1
a d I'll i
J'C' ,", ,
summarized
I"
t- ')
a b 'I
Dudley'5
"t',lor-thul'nberland=
,.John
r-
rlnt
i3 1 'I , ,,15
opinion
for
hi;::,
vacillatin~l,
Til
'I:"',
i39ain5t
depo-::.ition,
h05tile,
c:lnd
country,
tortlll'ed
", 1'1'1 F'
d
comrnonly
,John
kncIl.Jlfl9
The
'-'
~J
I I 1 / -::-,
rei q n;
'/ f~ t,
com bat ted the -::. e
pol itical
Myth
of
[) U d 1 e y.
of i ~~ h tin ~~
d 'I f fie u 1 tie:', ,
de C omp 'I i -,:,hmen t-::',
the
pop IJ 1 a r
Wicked
Duke
in
c11"1d
hi;:-,
the
at-ticle
Historicdl
DudlE'Y":
The Northumberland regime concluded d reali5tic treat')
\.)'Ith France and
maintained
law and
order
clfter
the
I'(~b(;~lli()n;'.
of 1.~;L,,9,
Prote~",tant
leader::, :,.uch a 0;:', John
I' " ,', /" (':" "
p ,- -:'3 ': -c', e d Nor t h u I'iI her 'I and i s
5 Ij P P () r t
0 f
I'" eli 9 i 0 U ~":,
r (-' 1" I~\ t' III, ",~ f'I d 'J e n era t \ 0 n 5 0 f Pur ita n ':c, f 0 n d 'I Y I'" erne rn b t':~ r' t h f='
reign of Edward as an era when a godly king encouraged
r~ght-m'nrled clergy to purge the Church of 5uperstition.
Joan
Simon
has
recently
emphasized
the
educational
IF,forlll':"
of
th~7~
P,"':'t";od '~Jnd ar~~lJed thf3t cornpar'ed with
", I ii.' ", r d / ~"
t" I::? 'i ~J n
\ t hat: (l f E 'I i :2: a b (':' t h f all::"o i n top 1 d C ~', a :::' a
l'I'f:;,,-jolllinatelv con'::',ervati'.!e age, /
nfter the.' rebell ion5.
""':i;l"I">I"'",,:',ei'15f':' r-equ'lt-ed :';',OC;,:'11
po'licif!:~5
that w()uld nl)t;
al i e f't d t f:::'~ the q e n try ,
Neve 1'- the 1e 5 :;:, the Nor t hum bel'" 'I and
qOl)f:'rnrnent permitte:'d Par'liarnent to repe(3l
the ~':'dUa!Jt?
Ua~rancy Act of 1547, a measure permitting enslavement.
I' ,I I I i a III E? n t' a 'I:', 0 p ,::~ :;. '::, e,' d col q t" a r i:'~ n :;', tat t.J e ,c, i n 1 '5~; 0 1:3 n d 1 ~> 13 ?
'I,I""1t maintained t'i'lld'Je and helped hornE'le~5::'. C()tt":l~~er'~':',
:'in,i ''-:)CCOlnrn,:',dation 'In the c:ol.Jntr'y5;d('~,
The le~li~:,ldt'lun
", ": r 'I ! I} \ .:; t' (: ,:,:,,: f 1.1 \ f::' I"t .:' '.I 0;1 h' ace 0 r' din ,~ t 0 ,J () anT h .'1 I" ::', k 'J
I,;
,1-,
':':.1::
"::".:''15('
11I(':'Id,,:~
a ,::,how of defend'in,] the pOOl'
oj q <"'Ii I"i '=, t;
t h ':": p 0 ~J e I' f ul , /
PI';:: t' hap :'- the rn 0 -::;. t
0;:', i ,=~ f'I 'I f 'j C d n t
"I r: h ! ,:':. , , f:':" In e n t
Cr f
t.: h e ~l (j V E'::' t' n rn ".': n t \.1 d 5 thE'::' I'" e':':", tOt.. d t i () n () f t h f'
15
Jorri0n,
99--100,
The
Chronicle
and
Political
Paper~ of
KiD~
Edward VI
10
COirtdqe
d nece::'::'dt-y but unpopuldl- med::.UI-e of financial
", r6
1"t·:,:1" 0 l"l'il.
11I,f.:il-tur,<':11:':-:1 y.
these r'-lartY accort'lf' 11 :;.hment::. are over ':.hadowed by the
d'I::"jl-dGe '.Jhich
later
befell Dudley,
a fi'lan who ::.eertllngly dppedl"ed
from nowhere to attempt to save England from self-destruction.
,I
Ci
Dud '\ e y
hn
P r'
t.1 d S
b a b 'I Y bar 1"1
0
i 1"1
the
1 ':'i 04 ,
::. 0 n
0
f E d fll U n d
Dudlev. Henry VII's minister convicted of embezzlement under Henry
VIII and beheaded.
all
of
thE'ir
hi::. father's execution, the family
~fter
In order
wealth.
to
retain their
Dudley's mother married Arthur Plantagenet,
Yorkist King Edward IV.
a
social
lost
position,
bastard son of the
When he grew older, Dudley was placed in
the wardship of Sir Edward Guildford, a situation which allowed the
~)
',) i j ,',
to () Y
'J
: ',i' '::', a ')
.::.1
Ie
"~:il-'i.':,'
1-"
('
t.l.:~,
I..
c.l
L' ,j d I '.'"
t
G
t,
I' iJ
i ,,::'
i rl t
t" ;, :1
,"I
°
:,! ' : .
1'- 0
1n
I.J,3':.
1a t
d u (~ "
y oJ':' ::.
f'::
r
e a 1- e d
h·j;:. b 0
not d
h~
act i
Dud 'I e y
l~ 1- Co :.; e ,j
~,'I':',
:::,uc.c.(":,';:. .""n,j
lortune,
1-
'I
ij
rl
k n i 9 h t 1y
i:,;.~]rdcf,=fu
1,
Although
'Ion .
T he QIJ e e n rna k E:' r.
k,
t
hat
E d mu n d
Ph'I1ip
DIJ d 1e y / :;.
but I-ather an euent ,:'Ibol..lt wh 1 ch
0
no:· and
the
t .J
1 1', h'j:s
1',1 a
edt"
fdf':he:'("::"
de po::. sib 1e b y Gu 1 1 d l' () r d '::. a b 1 1 i t y
s tab i 1 ; t y
a fI d
P Y' e ::. t 1 I~ e
whie h
It-:',::ld, DudlE';:Y becarne a lawyer-.
detel"l'liined
wa ;:.
1 y chi 1 d h () 0 d .
to
l-eGouer
the:
exten::.iue
Ob~::.e~:.5f,:d
Dud'I('~y
was able to wrest control of Dudley Castle from his
cou::.in. John de Sutton, Lord Dudley,
dl"ld
fa!':. h
17 t,,11\
L, "",
attempt to defend the fami 1y name is evident in many
__
: c.il,::.",lr,,]
t..:',i.I,
be
if',,'.
di;~"ath
to
U
t
Though his actions were not
16Uarret L. Beer, "~lorthljfl'lber land: The Myth of the Wicked Duke
the Historical John Dudley," Albion 11 (1979): 13.
1 '?
t-
j.
.1
1.1 ..1,
Ur'I,ilip Lind::.ay, The.' queenrnaker
:t '? ~:~; :I.) 2 / ,
(London: Willic":Hn5 arid Norgate,
, 1 U', " ' ,
() f
h ".:, e
I
,
t h r:'" m D :c' te, C
P IJ '1
Cl
Dud 1 f':' ') '~:. P r' () pert y
u';, ,
p c~ r all e 1 F'~ d
d i·:" p I.J t e':",
rn ":;' fI) bet· -::. wit h i n h i -:;. c 1 a ~:. ::;. and can not bee 0 n -:;. ide r' e d
the t'
0
I" II
" ... , ··,1
from
hi5
rni 1 itary
Dudley'5
early
..
prowe~:.~:
was
career
"The rno":?:.t
irnportant
to
for
build
achievement
himself
a
military
reputation that endured untarnished until the debacle of
Hi5
military
kni~hthood
I: ' ,'., "
I : rI , I a
0
'1
'I
F I! e r I t
Duke
of
Suffolk's
C
1 (I sea s
";:. 0 cia t e -:;. ;
in f
~;)
French
a man who would
the 5 e
c t,
two
rll e,' n
'.1 E!
1 1 ',.'
C (11.1 n c i'l
'1 ,,:',::
i';
n r: j
19
Edmund
!.1
.'j
,., r , ,.:" ,,;
the
feats was Edward Seymour.
Dud 1 e \) .' :c'
-f
n c [) rn FE'
'Irr'portdnce;
I:', '"".!
5irnilar
during
1553.,,18
conspire together to deprive Plantagenet of about 60 pounds
would
;j
far
() n f~
C! IYI (c:.
5ucce55e-::.
of
'.
0
d
PP 0
'I
1,
rn 0
'1' ":i C
had
n ted
ne')er'
L () I" d
elJen
been
f.) d rn
i r' a '1,
H i ~l h
1543 and
")~
R p r" i
n
n <""I n
i n
DI.ldlev
l.. ..' ,
,20
kni~~lht€':~d,
Dud '1 eye n t ere d
the
wa5 elected to the Order of
Thus, Dudley appears to have had few
u '-"
' ..J
0 t.·f.·.·.··,.
t,
14
,',1 '::'. bel i e
~.' e d t 0
'i 1..1 i t
be
f?
h I.J rn b 1 e
<""I
nd
mod e '5 t ,
In his corr'espondences from the Borders, he "declared himself rnost
'I.!nmeet and
K'I 1"".'._1 . ,,21
but pledged to do
I
h'I~:.
utmost:
to ser've
'r t'11":'.
' fiIO(.Ie'::' t.:'/, ,·,owever. ,,,
::I ' ::I no'tmean
t L1'rc'3 t 0 UI,::1'1 e)! wa":?:,
J
lfl~ ,.1, r.',1 F"t t..
}9,~ fe, ... '
.' n!,.~
unworthly',
L
tj!;ll- I~ h I.J rnt' ' ':' t: 1 ,.~ 1"1 ,-j :
I::l Cl
~.
T~'I~
F' Q I i 1< i ~g ]
./": h 'I 111 1-' ~ t' 1 '-'-a 1'1 d " Tbr" E' ~J I i 1; i
i:,:,:'(-:~ ,... tjrn t. h IlfI' I;:. ~." r- 1 ~'l P "j :
21f:le(""I'" I::l ~l t: t: tl'Hnt' ~ r '1
~iil O.-j :
~; ,~
C~t:~~t:
I 1: ~~ C' ,~p t:
Qf
Q
j' JQbr:1 Q 1.1 Ij h'~~
i t i ~ ~.~ ] r; r~1 t: f~ f'" t" gf' ,Jpbn
Ib~ E'Q ]
i :Ii
,,~
] !:~t:~~t·
Qf
J ' cI
,:..eUO·1
,1Qb['1 () IJ .-j ]~~ 9
'rh"~' F' ~, '1
j
the
QII"~ lr'~1
n
1 <;>
JQbr:1 Q 'I,-j h·' 1/ 17
12
of
violent temper; he was suspended from Parliament in 1546 for
d
::.tl"·ik;n~~l Gal-diner in the Privy COlJnc'll 22
Dudley's primary responsibilities during his early political
Thi:::.
'1 ,;:iter'
benE':f i ted
him
when
Pi'It": ·idill<:~'ntO'· of [dward VI'O'. r·el~~n.
'I
1 11", Co.:::. •
not
1,.1,:l:'·,
pi:jl-l1arnents
act i \} f:::
cl n
1~i47"48
of
0
participated
in
the
Dudley, fight'lng off a recut-I-inq
r
'j n
p a t- tic i pan t
f '1 u e n t; i a .\
this
Aftel"
.
he
politicdl
ab::.ence,
nth e
.j
howf=uer,
pai-t\c\pation increased greatly, culminating in his becoming Duke
As
(.", ,
<••
1i..•.
....
i:':"' d
essential
," e p oj t: ,.':I t i
";;
reue-sal
~harp
I.; '.1.
"
the
of
f
j",
under
h ,:ll-
0 t'
::. h
Edward
n f~:::. ':;:.
,
but
the government's social
t i l l , : . I' f i c. " Ol 1 '1 V f
the government;
~the
I' C. W n e
f
i n
d C
the r e
t
wa::·
no
policies and enclosure
He did
oJ upon." 23
Northumberland
VI,
h i:':i vet 0 t
1 con t
d
t- 0
1
0
f
difference was that he managed the bureaucracy
pI' iC:" tel"i ce t h,':tt [dwa r d had d ::.::,uflled f u 1 1
t: hfE'
on
0
ruler
':':".0
ver e'j
~~
n t y whet-eas
held as:serted the r i~~ht to nedl-'" ::.ouel"ei~)nty as Protector. ,,24
:.;Dh"ltC'I"::·.et
As ruler of England, Northumberland managed to make some important
r c, r
.:'.uflcl";nq
I
I"
(I I I i
led
C
,j
f(om
~4 0 1"'
1 I y"
to
the
I.
::.tee:p
'I 1"", ::',
t h IJ rt"I b if:: t- '1 a 1"1 d '
of
'0.
he
1"1 G e ,
inflation
dissolv~ng
n""
I (
t: 6
to
end b
1e d
undergo
ext I" e I'n e act i
his
own
a
0 f"I '::'
<:I
t
C () U 1'1
I"
V
financial
t o e IJ t
gendarmes,
'::1
ex
W hie
pen d i t
rnove
.,~
/.
" t.
!. .. '
IJ
r f:':' 'c.
which
•
"o:.,J
'./
wd':"".
l"ecovel'·Y.
231', '.~' ':l ('~'I- L Co,~ k V E' r . .-l....
· ';.:.J:,O;.:I-_.;:;;(:l~r.:.;1,.:.:f--,,~J:..~t:;:.·;.:U.l;;dl..lt_-J;:.t....,.:.C'-\I_
.. .l.l..l:t:,.l;O;l.,·..l.l.l.'nu''--.01;1.;;:4l:.:;~'.:I;.l_-'_1~7..!1~4 •
(I'·k,' w Yo r k: St;. Ma r t i n '::. PrE'::.::., Inc., 19 8 ~j) 9~;;.
,"T! . 1.1
h
,
2nd ed.
13
, . ,', nJ' r i h
1.1
t fc' d
Whl:'·'n
t h 1 ':'.
'l' ()
dei31inq
1 0:;' i n q
w'l1:h
c
('I
n t r'
0
1
reli,]iou::.
0
~J
c: (I IJ n t r
the
f
rnatter-:::.,
John
•
Dudley
supported
Wd~
Yet despite all of his efforts, Northumberland
not
deE'I:,lV
"'j
committed
Wdrw~c~
He
man.
cho':':.e
his
religion
to
fit
the
~~oorl
'neither on the one side nor on the other'
hi",. {':'/".5"~/l' \.Id':':. obed 'I E'rtCe to
the ~:.uprel(lf~
hp~d/~ w~ll.
He apparently accepted the idea of Mary/s
l'
":f"III"','
i f <:,.h(·,:' l.Jould'"ur'port SCtmf:'r::.etl~:, ()l.'erthl~oW .... he
'.1<
11,,'
r·r·"'·'r.,"·lr",·,.-,d to d·i·".:,ernb If;'~ in r"el iqion \..Inti 1 Ed~J"':lrd/·:",
',!I "o!'" i'l"','
j":IIr:!f':'d
[,I..I'!':,
1,lhen
,,·.hf2 r·efl..l~. .,ed to imp 1 i catr:',
h("~r·:;'E'lf,
hf::'
turned to Cr'anrnertr:. l.Jho::.e
influence
over'
r: ,.I W i:'1 r d q ,;3 u t" h', ffI P ('I \..1 era t C (l I I r t. -'
r (":' 1 i 9 i on.'
',1"1
r1 . .·\ I"
I 1 ~ 1 I,
1.1
U 1,1
1d
I) ' , .
'1 a':'· ton
E IJ w a
t'
d
P ~, 0:'
()
1 '):3::.
I,
I)
0
1.'C··~.. t:"·
of
,',ot
Deeply
9"OW
to
T h Jj~.
t h e~
,
'If.flui':'r,,::.(,?d by
Somer=-e~,
":·eern
j'f:'''fer-ence
I· ...,,' !,i·',.
I ! ..
f·::·
"'t:'II",
rea 1 i
wa '5
old a t
to
hi:::.
n tal
that
the
VI
1 :;. 1 0
~:".ljrroljndin~~
P0
hi·.:',
bother
to
h'I5
death
cut off
'l
the
Of'!
Uf")r'I
boy;
.]anu.'3ry
I'
f
hi::.
rei 9 n •
F'rote~:.tanti·;;.rtl
of h'j;·,.,
0
never
n =-
him.
journal
22,1552=
TOI.Jer Hil'l
they
rl'l a d e
~·:,:·aw
rarel.."
d u r'
the
given
.j n
9
Ironically,
1; f e
his
the
cont,3in5
onll,!
"The Duke
of
d
Drle
death
did
blric~f
Somer~"f:'c't
betl,Jeen eight ,:"Ind nine o .... clock
'j'
0
th
Thf'"
Chrpnicle
II
his
~J e
ruler',
si-::,.ter':':.;
dec
d
Z f:"
the b e 9 inn i n 9
Edward
\) ern rt'l e
mf~n
d
his uncle with whom many believed him to be close,
I'll ,~,' . I ; ",
?r:
clo5e
90
,':3 n
'Influenced by
Parr,
the
to
hc~(,d
F d \.1 ."" t' d IJ I
n 1 y n i n eye a r' ':',
Catherine
')j:'pnr'l:'.ln'll:v
another' .
a ~:,
'1 0 n 9
was well-educated.
stepmother
1'1 () t' t h 1.1 In b e 1"1
t .j ,) n,
;
'
i·":',
dedth,
Northumberland
replaced
the
/1?
26,
.) r J-."
.., '.'j , .. 1'1
,,!.
lU. 10/.
dnd
f'olltjcdl
Par,er'"',
of
KjD'~
Edw,:Hd
ll.j.
Protector's position of Importance in the boy's life and encouraged
Edward VI
I
i:': ~
()j:'
t hi::. e>\ pel" 'I
q;"
ii' i
to attend Privy Council
i)j',
(7:;' 1"1 C fE'
f: nab 1 f::" d [: d wa
meetings.
I"
Near the end of his
d U Ito b e ~~ ina :::.::. e
t
t"
'I
n SI
his () wn
<",f.:. Jut j:'o 1 j t i c·.:', I mf.;tte. r:s.
R~thOJ0h
Edward VI showed promise of becoming a great ruler,
began
succession to
second in
worry)ng
Rlthough Henry VIII
the throne,
about
had declared
her
line for ascension, Edward VI did not want his Catholic
s)steF tG gain control of England; thus, the boy drew up a device
which would effectively keep Mary and Elizabeth from the throne,
In
.j 1',1'1
Ij
the
the
pa,::.t,
e [, c edt he boy
accepted
I n t o t h .j .::., act ion;
JOI'
.:Jan,
~·lol'thiji'llbel"'I':'i"ld'::.
::,i:lt
roo','.!',,;,
• j
,
I,
I
LI
Si"::""'(:'::l'Ith
G,
F'~
,
F 0 I' rne r 1 y,
'Ii",
the fall
'lin,,·:·
for
of
Wi:,,::,.
Northumberl,::lnd
may
have
h 'I ::; t () I'" ian::.
::. U c h
for'ced
a::; ::.e r t
the culmination of
Somer"5et.
the cr'o,.Jn,
behind
truth
'I'; hf::
I.'
"7
;',i',,j
Edward
(::ltterflpted takeover
Afto':':,t-
the
lonqer d:::, accept I ng of th'I":'.
that
~3 f'1 d i n toe 0 rn p 1 i ,-::l nee . 27
wa'::;
con t e rt'l P 0 r a r y hi's tor I an:':;,
dr'e no
They
t,l Ll I' t hun', b e I"l
bel'le::f
e~~ d
d
Northurnberland
in ()I'del"
to
~~<,.i'ln
theSE allegattol"ls
i ::.
Elton, Reform and Reformation: England 1509-1558
Mas:.achusetts: Harvard Untuersity Press. 1977) 371.
2Br;, T, C 1 r, d i) f f.
.: '/ ~:., . ~. J:: lJ ,.~...~t ,
"n
K'j n ~~ ,j Q rli a t ~; t
Cl
k e.,
1.~; !:'; :~ ,"
Hi':. t
0 I"
Y To d (j Y. I I I
tl',(,"
c ,', r I" ~' e t e e ',' " d (';> rt c e
m~rried
UJI/-:"
nf
C ()
i'j
n
;0.
r' i r ';::j C y ,
on
':"i::;-,ter,
P () 1.J e r' ,~ u 1
1 k,
(; u f f ()
h ,OJ d
Le,ldy
21,
M.::ty
t e r ", h '::1 t) e
':'f
or,"?
rOY'::1
1'5'53,
Grey
p 1 aye d
rn'i~l~d:
SEll,.'
fe" \,
ex
j,-;,
t ':';
i '::, t 1 y, 'J e ','
",nut
j"':"f' / :'-,
!,JC'IJ I,~I
',:1"",
11":11
1,,'1','
Gpev,
'j
t; n
'5 U
~l
.",
i U f':
c h ,,:~ -::. i 9 n
h i
~':',
5
t
hlJ(:jf'.'
p.::lrt
of
'i("'t!""r"be,·,-Iand tel act
f
the 0 u k e
that
(';1rtists
par t i n her
.:'::lp()theo~',i~"
in
English
to
t:l
,,29
Le, one of
She
pic t u r E"
0f
t'he
the
.John
T h f'
undnimous
I
~'.
two,.
[)udle~y
verdict
of
. ,,3 0
for-
ce,'~d
VI only desired
to
irnpendinl]
Rlthough Edward
ne
IJ rn n
1 d not' 1 1 v r-:f: bey 0 n d the
UI
Cl
Bdnni:;:.ter'
d
death
ut
fr'om the '''.IJcces'':.ion, the ju,,:.tification for her Y"1:?mov':':ll
291','t'c3nh F'I'oChd':'.ka. "fhe MdnV Face-::. of L.ddy Jane GI'ey,"
3~; ( t 10 1,.If: rn b e r'
1 9 B~) ): :'> I,) ,
r II d <'l II"
little
her,
bet~Jeen
fr-ofl'l
letter
received
E dUEl!' d
f
r e con s t rue t ion.
history since
di':,:.'like
ri'lutual
C0 U
0
ima~~inat;ue
and
the arnbitiol.J::', pl<':'Hl5 of John
and
quick ly .
0
G U 'j 1 d for dan d J d ned i d not e n joy
'In
etc' r ~':-. t hat [d I,J .'::1 I' d
equally
; n '", ,
her
aecor'ding
sought
cjppeared
d a u ~J h t e r
dna c cur ate
tor' ian ' ;',
t h c:) t
I.Ihich
t h (,'"
'j can t
characters
c::'I"!t(C'-'lllr'I::>t'",:~t'ie':':,;
r'!''::II'-',.'
f
'I
[If::·:::.pitE'' the
Northumberland
... ,' !'I,~If:':
match
in
fI'llJt-e accl,Jt-ately,
cClrnr',::,nv.
oj 'J
e~
I,)
unl.J~:,ual
";.,;,
d ,,:~ nee '::: u 'J ~~ e
pL::H,'
a
Guildford was the son of one of the
1 b 1 0 f.) din her
the most misunderstood
,,<'
t'~orthurnberland
Ultim(3tf.,:,ly"
i n Eng 1 and ,';1 n d J ,:'j n e.
I'tIf-:- n
:,lane
LJ I""
:: " C\
bf':'ttpr.'ln~l
his son to Lady Jane Grey, also the granddaughter of Henry
Lpneficial for both families:
1..-IO'"l
of
prijct'lce
H'j<::'.tnr'V
UI
C 01..1
"
t
rl,o:;:..
(.\J
11",01",':10::':'1'
j'
0:' ~.
p fE' .~;
1 ',,' ",i f
Ij ':
t;
i
Ed::'. 'I.
y.
I' f=~
fer
'I y diu () t" c i-:'~ d Hen r' y IJ I I f
I" () m
deuict:,~
,.
. '.'
d
1 ledque'E.
.I
l)
...1
to
,
I
";::,
put
de'::ith
the i
effectluely hidden from
,I t; h ,,,:'
~" : , ,)
wh 1 c h
and Lady
5
tat i n 9 :
Elizabeth
b (=' ~~ 0 t ten
excluded all
women ruler"::..
declal'ing
::.ucceed; yet, the document wa:;:.
Jd Y
"
•
P 1 i:'ln
t"
6
•
chdn~F~d
i roto
" .. E i'I
'j
the public,
rfll', ':0: Ii din 9 act ion:;.
t
T h I' Q C k row r'
the
III c:,
1:; () n,
a
::. ::. e n ~~ e
t"
i:;:.
Ur,fnrturiate'l y
act i on
f ci v () I' i t e
Mary was
b y a rt'I e -:;'. -::. eng e r' .
~11'
IJ I,
and
• they
VI'::. death
Edward
Wd5
informed of the death
The identity
e ,--3 t I Y deb ate oj;
() fEd war' d
Nor'thurnber- I and
ef'lab led
Although
," i"t
1 e ~~ 1 5 1 a t ion
I'll () r', t,: h ::: .
'."
Ldw.::,i'
~".
ru"er". Gould
f'id',(,;:
which
who ::. () to.::' I,) (:' r . "
'rl',e: fir::.t drc:"ft of the
tl',i:;t or,ly
1544,
of
al-::'.o the ~:.c~id Lady
a I' e d n d bee 1 edt" I y
ask. claim. or challenge the sC':'J'Id impE:'~rial
<:'3::'
heit" Q{i heil'5 Ot" IJ'::'. to any other pf:'rson
to
.
I' e r c':; 0 n ::.
elirnindted.
the p t" inc e -::. -:'. ':::. rn 0 t h (':.: I' b Y
i5 aforesaid to the said Lady Mary
b i'- 'j r, ~J '\', 1 (':'~ 9 i tin, ate ':3 n d n () t 1 'OJ W f u 1 1 Y
WI"-:,,,I"i:'':::OV as wi':::11 the ::'.6io:l Lady Mal"y as
LI 1 :z. d ::0 e' t h to a I I i n ten t::; and pUt" pose E.
iJ i"
al:,f..o
Act
t o t he ear 1 1 e r
d
I' f:
Rs
di::'.ab'led
CI uwn
Well:;:.
the Succe5:::.ion
nu'll'ify
E d W Ci r d V I
Eliz,:,beth
if
be ::.upported
efff.:~ctiuely
1';,)
\H'.: "
1y
how e ~) e t".
c I C:~ i rn s
of the rt'Ian
Sir
N i c h 0 1 d5
the ere d i t i n
M 0:, I"; 1'" 1". i 1"1 g, f I" () n, G j'" e e n wi chI did d ::. t I' a y t d e p '::1 I' t
10 Lo~don, to an house which bore our name.
hi
"f:;
f:--:'
(New
"2",
j
L
LI, i
i"j
d !:i ·I~ f
~S~· 2
i'::' i-I
d l.. I·~·:' U 1n e:-:'
.L () E~
.
1?
1'1 ',' I: I' ,,!~: h (':"' t' EI n
'II,,", Vi nq U,,,t:::,
:::I'j (":"', 5
f'"
m V h (-::'1 <':1 ',' 'I e
db,,'
h f: 1"'1 r t
f:"
confe'::',,", d the ~:,c-:trnf.:':
The h0s~lnq of his death I dldd unfolde,
Their meaninge to proclalme que~=~ne Jane I tolde.
d~".'el,:l,
,:In!i
[
f
flrld'J thou,]h I lik/d not the relig'lon
Wttich all her life queene Marye hadd profest,
Yett in my mind that wicked motion
R;ght he)res for to displace I did detest.
Causeless to proffer any lnjurie,
J mea1t it not, but sought for remedle.
Wherefore from four of us the newes was sent,
How t,at her brother hee was dead and gone;
[n post her goldsmith then from London went,
Pv WhJmE the message uas dispatcht anon.
~:;hf:~t,:, '""l,,~·'(,:,::d,
'If I.Jee knf:.~W(':? it certainl'je?'
i.<11.oe "',.::lid, '(:;',r Nichola'C. knel.J it \)erilit'~,1
I 1'1 (:" ,J "I 'I,' h (, r b r' e d t tie e r " <":3 n d / "". 'J 1- e d t e m i .".. t: I' U :". t ;
Shee fear'd a traine to leade her to a trapp.
<;hC'e ::.aide,
'If Robert [Sit- Robert Throckmorton]
thr""r'e
H"I()C-~
II "~ 1'
S~ee
nftel~
of
thi5 ft"le55age.
Mary
Immediately fled
h c' r1 " '::I h t
l.Ja~,
11d I" ','
l,,1 c":l 0"
0
proc 'I
j'ji,:
,,1,1
I'
lup
, I ' ; "I"
14,
fEd W i:,n d IJ I / '::. de a t h,
p I' DC laimed queen
'"\ ,
nor'th
to
in Norfolk and gathered forces at Framlingham Castle.
when Northumberland sent his son to her
J,,:lne
beene
I
I"€~ception
Thus,
had
dUf''C:;t
]Elq'd her 1 ife, and h,.3z.'::)rded the happ,
1"",, t t e r 'C, I"n ,:3 de. '::, h e e k n e 1.1 e not 1..1 h (~ t t 0 oj 0 e :
'13
~ent them Dute,
butt nott sub5crib'd thereto,-
Kennlnghal1
t
~",hE:~e
d 'j
rned q U(':'~e:n
':'!::".i~,:lh
\ ",OIr',
W',; "'I 'I"
-_ .
~:.
hew a s 9 0 n e ,
i n London
c,
"1.":
Framl i
Hertfordshire home
De -::. p 'I t e Mar' y I
the next day
:':.
cIa I ft"t
Two day5 later,
n~~h(":1m
~.I·i~:;h~:'·!-=·'"
[-:::''1 ..) eid., 'fhg,-=- Chronjclp pf QIIE~en a,"'Df-"
("If U,.Iee'q 1"lsH'"
and E,,,.ppclal'lv of the Rebf,']ljon qf
C ,:";, III d r:~ n (:) (l c i fc;' t \} 'It !.~ 8 I. l.. 0 n d f) n: ,], B. N 'j c h 01 5 a n oj S () n 'J
'
, ~nbpl"t 'lttler and Susan Sattley, HThe Local Community and
the Crown in 1553= the Accession of Mary Tudor Revisited," Bylletin
of the In"'".t:jtqt(.... of Hj~"torjcal Re"",earch, '57 (1984): 131.
18
Tllf".:' proclclfl'lation of
Queen J,:lne,
although
viewed by ::.ome <35
treaS0nous, disclosed many of he fears and concerns prevalent
sixteenth-century English sOclety.
./
.. -.
Ilc·rtl-,,' VI I 1
l,\1
.j
1-
f
·h;:;,:·
'·lc'·lr y
i "
/
" Cj .. ,
()
I
t h t:~ c r
'f'
F'i"OIJ
1.. 1 Il:"
L,,: . ""il
1
i
W
di:::.tl-':lctf.""d
and
l~gal~zation
,
0 ,.)
jU5tification dated back
" Whoevel'- I-ead::;. the
1:
F i .]hth
1.\. . ,
.
'.I,}
:::.
The
wi 11
i'l
~". 0
::;·oon
be
in
'j
attel"
pal't of
that
conv i nced •
he
the
1 i Fe
left
thE':!
d 1 ':; put a b '1 e, t h fj t i t c 0 u 1 don 1 y be
0
win ~~
1 dF.:'nci::", that the nation had not, for elJer after,
i.ilth
contr·,::.ry
clairn::.. " 35
By
a'llowing
divorc(·:·,·I .,. .
ignoring the Stuart claimants who descended from
his sister Margaret, Henry VIII confused the dynastic issue beyond
simple reconciliation.
fore'gners and Catholicism onto their court:
If the said
Lady Mary,
or Lady Elizabeth,
should
h,.:rt:cai'ter have. and enjoy the::.aid imperial crown of th·j·:;".
realm, and should then happen to marry a stranger, born
out of this realm, that then the same stranger, having
the go l) ern me f'1 tan d i rn per i a 1 c row n i n hi::. h a rHi ",,; • W 0 u 1 d
adhere and practise. not only to bring this noble free
realm into the tyranny and servitude of the bi5hop of
f( n iYI e , to uta 1 '::. 0
t 0 h a Vet h e 1 (:I W::. and C IJ ;:. t () HI ::. 0 f hi::. () I"
their own native country or countrie5 to be practi5ed,
<:, I't .::l j: .. j t
1 n OJ :;:. f'f: wit h i nth i::. r- E a 1 fI'I , rat her t h ,:, n 36t he 1a W ';:. ,
,:' L ':I:.~ " I:..•'.':.' "0', and c u ;:. t () ril c'· h ':'c rEO f
'j () n ~::j t i fI'I E u::. e d .
fhese fears arE common
i ,.
Ii,:
,..... ',.1
~':i
'1
throughout English h'5tory;
they
reappear
doc uri'lerl t
r', .
the
35
U.'lt':"llf'l,
"Thf.'
Irls'i';I'lJrnEO'r,t
by which
Queen Jane w(:~:::;
u (", t:. i'i G f ::: n q 1 ,'" 1"1 d, [. c. '::. e t t i r. 9 f () r- t h t h ;:~ F{ e ,;j ::. CJ n s () f he It. :." '; i!, , <:', n d h ('-.', r i . i ..~: I 1', t Co t he Cr' 0 wn • If The S (] fi'I e r::·. ' C() 1 1lee t .j () n 0 f
T I' <:l C t';.. Ed. Wa I t e:' I" ~:; cot t. E. ;:. q ., V [)·I. 1 (L. [) n don: T. Cad ell a and W.
- L,I,'·,'.,:,.::
: . , .::. ,. : '.·"i if, f:'.
1.)":,\11,,,:::.,
,:J
I)
10)9)
36 1:, ,.:. ",:_:
: .• I
\'..:
.: '.J
i !'ii c: j
,~:O.
Do' if;,:"~
U i.' ':.:':- ~:.:; n
'j ''''.
iJ ·f
II
"I' h(::-
L r I ~~i 1 . . :I n d"
1 n::-.trur,lent
~~ i~ .
by
wh i ch
Queen
Jane
1,..1,:'1':';.
19
,'" () 1 ! (" r:- t 'i ',' f"
f
E':"
nf
a r ";,
t h fe'
nob 'I
f:" ',', ,
~lor't;hIJrllbet'l,:~nd
ot'de~'
T ...
to
captur'e
{:3
mr.:lV
nd
not
h<3ue
fleein'~
th..;:'
He wanted
ci:jpt,:~ir
to
captained
thf~
army,
the army
but
himself,
in
t: heM a c h 1 a ',I f'!' 1 1 i
been
Mary,
Henry
accordance
the
the
center
Duke
Grey.
with
i:, n
de'::. i r
thi~':,
of
gathered
Jane's
Jane's
Northumberland's sense of
17' ':'"
(:':In
father,
wl-::,he~',.
hE'
uneasiness
M'v' lcH'des, I and theL::-, other noble per~',onage="
and the
hole oJrrllY, that nowe 90 furthe, a5well for- the behalfe
of you and yours a5 for the establishing of the quenes
hl~lhn:?~:"
'5,hall not onely i~d~)enter our body'es and live,,:;
"'IIYIOnIJ,=st thf.0 b 'I udy strokes and cruell a~',::,al te::, of our
adversaryes in the open feldes, but also we do leaue the
con':::;ervaciof"l of our' 5elve~'"
children, and famf.:llies dt
horne here with ylou, a5 altogether- corflytted to }'our truth~"',
"Hid fydE,'llyt'le5, whorn 'if we thought you wolde throu~Jh
malice. conspiracie, or di5centyon leave us your frendes
"II'I t,he bre:'f"'I"::' dnd betrdY us, we cou'lde aswell sonder'y
'iipc
foresee ~nd proulde for our owne sauegardes as eny
O~' ,,' i) j
by bet r E.I ') 1 n I~ 1.1 '"' can do for V 0 U r e::. ,
But n () w 1.1 P () n
the one:l y' tr'IJ":,te and
f,::lythefullne':":', of your'
honnour-:::;"
wherof we th)ncke ourselves rnoste assured, we do hassarde
,')fld
'1'Jbardf:? our
1 iue':';"
l.Jhich truE,t; dnd pY'ofrli';',e Vf ~)e
",I,,':; I! 'i 1 q I :'~t,::""
hop i r'i(~ ttlE't'bV of 'Ii fe' and prOftHltyon
/ ',"- I .1 h (':I \.1 f':o
n D t ~:.:. r' (1 k f:-' 1"1 t D ~I (1 U 0 nth :1 5 '5 C) r' t (~ 1..1 P 0 n (':3 n y
d'I''',tt'I.I~':,t I
haue of I~Jour truthes, of the which dllwdles
I hf.,)[If? el}l?r h'ltherto concedved a trlJ=,ty confldence. but
J hdl}:'~ put you i n refl'lerflbr~':lnce therof, whdt chc":lunce of
uariaunce
soever
rnight
growe
emongest
you
in
myne
,;jbsen,:oe; and thi::', I prdye you, wi,,:,he me no LJOrSe SloOC~7
,'IF".:'" in '/:'h'I'" '1(II,lr'nev thfE"n ye woldt: hal.!e to vour::.elue:'~~'",,-
'I ,',
J;
i' ,,"'''' ,
k.l
'I
l' h
J 0 h r,
D II d 1e y
37,,1 'I chn 'I~; 6''''7,
I~ 0 n I:'::'
1" r
0 fI'I
t; he
cit Y ,
the
rfle n
'I () 5 t
t h f.:'!
'I '"
20
C(.1Urc:t~:4(':'
",nd f(::ll
pr'ey
th,:;:: new'!'.
r,ljit:hweli"d,
to
of
their
Mal"~!/~::.
A::. he rnoved
doubt::. and wot-rie::..
gt-owlnl~
'!'.trength and =.upport
fflU::.t
Although much of the nobility was
concerned
reI igious and personal issues rather than dynastic,
with
Rlso, manu people did not believe that Mary
i,~>:)i..Il,:1
cltterllpl;
to f3::i"adic,::,te
Pr'ote'!'.tantisrn from
the
'land;
rather,
Thus, her strength
continued
and
to
on
20,
July
Northumberland
By Augu5t 3,
surrendered in Cambridge and proclaimed Mary queen.
when
Mary
triurnphantly
returned
to
the
city,
quietly
Dudley
wa-=:.
in
the
for
the
Tower' .
nG "
t h i.I rn bel'"
a [", d / ::. de: to a C 1e
p I" 0
V e:
d toto e a cat a ::. t
I' (.1
P he
Rttempting to save their own reputations and
By no means innocent,
I ',:
CI
"lhe myth of the wicked duke
',,:
t. i", c', f;:'
',1 1:"':.1;
i)
II
;
1 "
I'n t
.:tppar'ent
iJ
P I" 0 tee t
in
a
t
h C:.' f1'I '!'. e 'I u e::. . ,,3 B
'I e:,ttel
r
to
r1dY'Y
T hi:,:.
fr-orfl
,3
the
I 1e g ian c e
Council
c h d n 9e
which
b.:::.,. . i'I.:I,:n
dUE:'t'ic'::. mo::.t humbly I'emernbred
to youl'
1"1 a jcc ,:,:,.t if:'>. it rnay lyk the same to ul-,der:::.t':'inde
1. : .. -'j t t
~~ e e
'I iHI r
rn 0 ::; t
h iJ m b 'I e
f 6 Y t h f U 'I I
." n d
0 bed i e n t
::' ij i" ,I e, c t ,;:: ';:. •
h a u I n 9 ':':1 1 'I w~":l y ':.
( Cod
wee t d k e tow Yt n e ":. )
f.h . i'
(;~XL'iC'llr:,'j'lt
lemayned your HlghnEs true and humble subjectes In our
h (':'il" t f:::·::. eve.: r ::. y t h f':: n:,::· the d eat h 0 f 0 u r' 1ate ~:; 0 u e r cl i '] n e
lorde and ma::.ter your Highnes brother, whom God pardon;
and
~eetng
hitherto
no
posslbilite
to
utter
our
de t e r rn I nat 'I 0 r, her e in. wit how t
9 rea t t de:. t I' U c t Ion and
bludstede bathe of our 5elfes and others till thl5 tyme,
have this day proclaymed In your Cltey of London. your
"Northumberland: The Myth of the Wicked Duke" 2.
i ':'.
had
21
M':'ijp~,,";if;~ to
bee our' true n1.:lturall So')eraigne 'I ie,:;(e Ladie,
111':I::,t hl..lrnb'lv be:"f,:~chin9 ','ou f'1,:l,:ie5tie to r,ardon
,'II d
r' <",'fn ,. t 1'.:
I) '.I t'
f n t'- rfl,':) r
\ f'I f 'i t" rn 'i t e~, • and rno 5 t
I] rae i 0 U ~:, 1 y
I, '!er r''l.' (,!IJr rne"c,n 1 nq'-,,::5 , I.Jhich hi3')~::'; bvn (,:,~u('?r to ::.erue v our
Hl'Jh'""O'.o;", tl'l.lf",IV, dr.d '50 '",hall remavn with al'l 01..1~9 p(H~er'::;'J
,'" n d f ,) i'- C e 5 t c< t h / e f f i.J:", 1 (1 n 0 f (01..1 r b lu d d . . , .'
C!"r:"I:,o'n.
',n'"
Because Dudley became the 5capegoat, extracting the truth about his
~haracter
Rs
~nd
ruler,
ntternptin9
C ('II'
riO
rule
Mary had
to
'I i c i:'" If!
15 very
'5due
l i t t l e choice but
hi5
own
life.
f uti 1r:~
Th i '";,,
,
difficult.
he
to execute John
declared
hi5
~Jh'lch
in
Ii 'iE.tor' \ ea 1
Nor'thurnberland
and
been
hd:::.
interpreted
influence5
Clnd
GJi1dford
" I, ; "
t I, I"
1.1
Pe
f' n n
'1'.:
j" ,:::,
I..!
0 1"1
herr " t 1..1 d V i n 'J t h 1 ':', t 't
a 1
he,] t"
followed Northumberland
"j
fI'l f.':~
p e to
'I 0
d, h 'I
rn 0 til.} f.e' ',',
n f.) t o n 1 '}
() f
Dud"
~7: y,
The
roDb i 1 i tv
of
the
f i
Ge
"",of
t; he
rn 0 n d r c h
f () r'
s~
i,hdt
their
l'I"OPOI"
t
'j
gredtly about
popl..ll,::.rity
on,':'lte,
7(1
In
religious
with
ot-der'
to
the
be
two
a
i
,'S tOtO
c~
but
c3 f'I
d
E;
ldter,
0
tho 5
century
rn 0 r. e y
Lady
deaths,
n '5 I'n U::, t
15
'In
the<':3tr i c:::, 'J
c () n'5 ide r
10,'
()
hi
f
C",
depend(=.',J
and
c3 c t; e
din
VI
and Mary
the nobility
realized
Becau5e Edwdrd
;55ue5,
fI'Ionar'cl'I~:'
~10()d
their
fte~el'lth
p () we r
accordance with the monarch'5 desires,
differed
to
the
related
the
De5pite
Fiue short month5
Jane and
to
from
~:,tudie'::"
narrdt'lue
'loyalty'
attempt
This hatred also
II ,':J I)
Dudley,
would
subject
be
under
inver~:.ely
Edward,
.:~
,:i,', () f C '1 IJ n c 11. "'I" he t.. 0 I'" d '5 0 f t; h e C 0 U n c ','I t 0 Que e 1'1 Ma I" y ,
h c' ',r F' r 0 81 tl fI'I a t i (0 n Cl f he I'" Tit 'Ie," :I I:; ",; :3, L. (e;' t t ere X LUI I I "
11t"I';"I'!'!] Ir:tl'('''r" I1JII",tratiw'" of EOQli'~,h Hj,-:,tory, Ed, Sir Henr'y
['11i-::"
I ~:,er'ie5, iJo1, I I (London= Harding, Triphook, and Lepard.
If:l24) ?43,
I'
,
,
I" ':','
!,' ' ; ",
I
~:~i':
22
person
had
under Mary,
two
to espouse the
this opinion would
option::.
faced
r"rote:::-.t;anti::.rn
," h (I ','
:
d
i'I [I
t
fundamentals
or
b i':,
:::. U I'
nobi'lity.
persecution
P I" i
t h c":l t
Sf:': oj
however.
be treasonous.
the
by
of Protestantism;
under
grace:::.
continued
Catholici:::-.m,
fa c t ion ali :;.. rn
t h I"
'I
ve d,
under
the
hi::.toric":ln
and
the nI ad Cd P
leader;
unfortunately. his faction
r,lar,
wDu'l,i
rt2,}er
CUI'i'f::,I"lt
i ,'"
r- I:. i
1'; ·:1 ", C ",.
G
t h t=:'
f
which
5
~~
r eli
i
tan d
0
q
'I
t: f:':. t ,:, n t::.
did
CI'o".. ;;:,'11'l9 of
n '::, t i t uti
u:::. bel i e f ::,.)
not
d
nd
exi::.t.
Yet,
when
encour~g2d
t:hl''',:""i91'Ic>ut
: •.. .II ..
by
the
the uppf::r'
unobtl·"u~'.iuc;
t'lc;n
I"
he
that
the
Wd';:.
<:1
::.tl"e::.-;:.
period
C0
I.J
n c i 1)
and
an:: 1 y at tern p tin ~~ t () r e 1 ate
John
Dudley's
ce"j'ld
,:':.1:", :,'i-,.:lI.,·::·,;"::,
however,
become a
line"::'. for
with
the
pr'opel"
of'
leader'
and
the
develop
ri:'lther hi::.
wh'ch
die e
pUt"pD~:.e
ro'le
existed
the5e f,::tction·::. wet"e
po'lit'cal
like that
did not
fact'ons
1..1
period,
common
<:l
leadership
changing
Norrna'lly,
powel.-ful
per'51:.nalit~,1.
thi::.
ideological rnean:::,.
constantly
eche'lon.
est <::1 b 1 i -;:. h a p I" e j
researchin!;!
·in::.titutional or ideological
thr.:.uqh 'in'::,titutiDnal ,:or
<"Ii,d
w h i 1e
was
(i. e .
0 r', 50
h i 5 tor ian ~:,
Cat h () 1 i c :::' •
Thus.
was
problem
Mi d .... Tudor
the
to
'I II
hi,::'.
leader of equal aptitude
By creating distinctions between the Council and subjects
the two.
I" 0
begun;
approache::.
ide c, I .::, q V ( i , e,
urI"
hal,.le
lacked a second
:::.I.... all
balance,
a
rnachine,
Con·;::.equent 1 y,
Henr'Y VII.
enabled him to
23
i'li'·''JIJ1'':lt~,,· c') 1.10'1.,,1-.:; 'Ie IJr'oup of rften
unfo!'tunatelv for him,
FtI,:::;t.::l,:;e-:~
chal"t']eable
::'1
he wa':'; not atlle to 5u".:'.tain the ba'!f1nce which
Chapuy~:',
and
once
cornmented
'incon::.i,::.tent
h IJ t
r
fE'~ '..1 (,:~
r
that
that
they'
l
:':~ f! t
[;1 (I
apprQachin]
I'
h
na
,_ ' " rtt
,_ , / ,,40
fIlUrll€:,
~,
the
Mid-Tudor
'j (~h
cl)rl'lfI'Ionl,,.'
.:-'1 b 'I
1 i t ',I
0
f
the 5 e
lIolat;'lle qroup5
beliefs,
u:::.ed,
o::t
lack
and plans
blamed 50lely for
h~s
and in
I. '
j,
e;. ','
'j':', f'~.,
ach~eved
a
Without
from fluctuating.
Thus.
the attempted political
i' , , 1", ,....:.
! :,.'
,!. 'I
I:",
frorn
~o
with
C '::1 t h () 1 i c .
a
point
of
a
ny
view,
ideo 1 ()I;~ i ca 1
be c3ttr-ibuted
to
chemistry,
their
John Dudley
coup, but
thE'
these
()ption~:,'.,
can not
be
neither can
he
the stabilizing influence upon his
fact~on,
absence the carefully constructed balance wa5 destroyed.
I:: d IJ a
I'
d (3 e
I,,'
I'ft 0 U
the balance
J~st~nation
,,:1
'5dy
obseruation
prohibit5
1 e d '" f act ion;
t..
which
would
how e ~.I e r.
have enabled
desire.
}',,'I','1
f
0
the proper
L~hich
"'so
contentedly
factional
c.:':"In
were
not
'I n5t i tut i Dna 1
the ::,tr'ucture
He was
this
h!J 1 d '::.
the
the':"e chan Jje5
r () Up::"..
~Jill
the year
from
the
both
:lr'r""'::.:'jch"",::"
in',. t
period
Erp] 1 i::.h
I
was
c han den d 0','" dun de r
t-
the
uarv.
England began
!" , ':' 'f: :
b()dy~
,::)chi"~")ed,
Ht:'"nt'V UTI
',' r,','
into an or~lani~~ed pol itical
was to be
I,I'IPC'.I'la
1:) , .. " ' I e } f'I .j
'in
him
<3 C
the
t ion
to
T()~jer'
V- ,'"I 1".: "II'::" t'
1 n .':',
Somerset
of
H0
London;
1,.1 .:',
r d ,
in
the Royal
t()~]f,:,ther'
f ell
0 ~J
U
Chapel
thev
i c t i rn '::".
n e u e ['
freedom
Northurnber- 'land/=--
ne~t
the~
h', '::.. f
1 ie
to
final
of
St.
betwf:'~en
() f E n q 1 i ',:. h
""Ii','1 i ,':",n"
'~O[' "" (' r,
tl n r t h I.J rn b f' r J ,il n d: The f' 0 J j tic a] Car f' t"" r
Q
f J
Q
h n Qu d J e V
t.~:[ .,'
Bibliography
i\,',et,
Garret: L.
"rlot-thljrnbf:'~I-'land=
thE 1:'~'.t:C)r:jcal aDhn Dud'ley,"
:,\(-:'cr.,
L.
£: a 1- 1
G61'1-,:;:.,t;
D u dl <'2' V
,
rlol-thumbel-land:
The
f War w i c k and D u k e
State Press, 1973.
Ohio: Kent
(19~)3)
L~I'i.:iWi'l.
'r,
!:;.
[\'\11.:1\:,1'1",
I:,'
0
Kin~1doril
"A
at
Stake.
P () 'I i tic a l e a 1- f.:~e I"
Northumberland.
of
1553,"
Hi::.tot-y
0
f
John
Kent.
Today
III
= 6t+2--Lj,[l.
D"Jrlie.1
r.: c. r c.;
The Myth of the Wicked Duke ,Hid
(.llbjol"l 11 (1979)= l'-1L~.
Patr'ick.
j' ,;
The
P,-otectorate
and
the
No 1- t hum bel" 'I an d
V' () 'I ;c i c, d J I n t r j que j n the Rei q n of Edw<:H-d
Pub 1 i cat i
Cal if 01"1'11 a = Golden
We~.t
Hi::.torical
c y:
V':::'l"ltUI'c:l.
VI.
on~:'.,
1901.
Ot-iqinal
Clli:'•. ,lle::nry.
1J01.
I "'-fE'I"'IE;::'.
:l U 'l·l ,
G.
II,
Let tel"::. I 1 lu;:. t rat i u e of E 1'19 1 i =. h H i ~::. t () r V .
London: Harding, Tr'iphook, and L.epard,
Reformation=
England
1509-1558.
Harvard University Press. 1977.
F: ,
C clir,b f i d ge, ,
r';
I,;"j,:::,
.JElillf''':''' f~r'It;~'I'HIV'
:'Ii::;tory of Ln91and from the Fa'l'l
....:;i::....tl.:.'' ...
:" ......ll.l;:':'; ;.;.~':~i::l~t:.!'f.!.1......lo...
d:..,:--l;L"",:.!.I....~ .,;:2.;,.!;'Cl.:.l't...
,. :..,~~t:.:.:.h .
1 2 V Ci 1 ::. .
New Y 0 r k:
.:.t;..:"",.:..:1
of' Wolsey
S c r' 1 b n f" I" ,
CI',:'.'at
[li"it'''11Fi, "PrCJceedi1',g::. (39air,st LadJ'" Jane Grey, .::Ind Other'::;,
!UI'II'i,::.":i'::.dn: I Mdl'Y, A.D. 1553,11 A Complete Collection of
State fridls and Proceedings for High Treason and other Crimes
and Misdeamors from the Earliest Perjod to the Year 1783, Ed.
r. n, How.::' 1 I, Vo'l, 1 (Londt.:.H't= T. C. Hansard, 1816) 748 .. 49.
[;1"Ci]':
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TI i61~ qnd Proceedinqs for High Treason and other Crimes and
MisJemcdnor-::. from the Earl iest Period to the Year 1783.
Ed.
T. B. Howell.
Vol. 1.
L.ondorl= T. C. Han=.~:H'd. IB16.
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H a r I,,' "" r' d University Press, 1970,
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c h u -;c;e t: t -;:', :
Cc~fI'Ibridge,
Cambridge,
W. K.
E oj war d V I: I h e I h r e;· h Q 1 d Q f Power,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1968.
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MOI"tim~'::r,
Lf"uine,
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196 6 ,
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New YOI"k:
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Letter'
H j ,~, t CH' \) •
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1824,
E;.q., e.d.
The Chronicle of Qyeen Jane and gf
Queen Maru. and EsppciaJlv of the Rebellion of
Thnf"a":, WI/at,
Camden Soc lety #48,
London: J. B. N', cho 'I ~s
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