Science SCI.IV.3.5 Grade: 6 Strand IV: Using Scientific Knowledge in Physical Science Standard 3: Motion of Objects – All students will describe how things around us move, explain why things move as they do, and demonstrate and explain how we control the motion of objects. Benchmark 5: Design strategies for moving objects by application of forces, including the use of simple machines Constructing and Reflecting: SCI.I.1.1 - Generate scientific questions about the world based on observation. SCI.I.1.2 - Design and conduct scientific investigations. • Investigate the effects of using ramps, levers, or pulleys on the amount of force needed to move objects. SCI.I.1.4 - Use metric measurement devices to provide consistency in an investigation. SCI.II.1.3 - Show how common themes of science, mathematics, and technology apply in real-world contexts. Vocabulary / Key Concepts Context Types of simple machines: • lever • pulley • screw • inclined plane • wedge • wheel • axle • gear Objects being moved by using simple machines: • wagons on inclined planes • heavy objects moved by levers • see-saw • cutting with knives or axes • • • direction change force advantage speed and distance advantage Knowledge and Skills Students will: Design strategies for moving objects using simple machines (e.g., moving furniture from a second story) A simple machine is a device, such as a lever, pulley, screw, etc., for controlling the application of forces. For example, a lever can transform a small downward force into a large upward force. A small twisting force on a screw can transform into a large penetrating force into a piece of wood. The only disadvantage in simple machines is that an external force must be applied over a greater distance in order to move an object a small distance. With a lever, a force must push down on the lever at a longer distance to lift an object a smaller distance. A screw must be twisted many times in order to move it into a piece of wood a shorter distance. Resources continued from column on right. Videoconferences Available For more information, see www.remc11.k12.mi.us/dl or call Janine Lim 4717725x101 or email [email protected] IV.3.MS.5 • Arms, Armor and Simple Machines from the Cleveland Museum of Art • Gadget Works from COSI Columbus (a science museum) • Simple Machines from COSI Toledo (a science museum) • Simple Machines from the Liberty Science Center • The Simpler, The Better from the National Science Center • The Incredible Lever from the NASA Glenn Research Center 6th Grade Science Curriculum Technology Resources IV.3.MS.5 Design strategies for moving objects by application of forces, including the use of simple machines Vernier Probes available: Force Sensor Resources Coloma Resources: Motion, Forces & Energy Text (Chapter 4) pp.118-136 Three Labs over simple machines. 1. Lever lab 2. Pulley Lab 3. Incline Plane (attached) Other Resources: • Michigan Teacher Network Resources • The Exploratorium – Sport Science • Scope Unit – Forces and Motion • Teach-Nology – Mechanics – tons of lessons on force and motion. • IL Institute of Technology – Smile Program – Physics – Mechanics – TONS of lessons vetted and posted by teachers – AWESOME! See the simple machine lesson posted by Tom Jenson – FUN. • Roller Coaster Physics – entire online book of applied physics including lessons, labs, and prep. Outstanding. • Discovery Online – Build Your Own Coaster • Discovery Channel Feature – Thrill Rides • • “Operation Physics” Bill Nye: Simple Machines Science Explosion p. 58 • Instruction Assessment Benchmark Question: How can we control the motions of objects? Coloma Required Assessment: Chapter Test on Simple Machines (attached) Focus Question: How can we use simple machines to make work easier? Instruction I Juanita is building a fireplace inside her home. She needs to bring the bricks from outside into her living room. The living room is one meter higher than the ground level where the bricks are. Describe how you would use simple machines to complete this task. Also include drawings to help explain. (Give as many examples of different simple machines as possible.) Instruction II Students will work in small groups to complete the following activities: Students will pound a large nail into a piece of wood. The teacher should make sure they leave at least three cm of the top of the nail above the board. Students will try to remove the nail with their fingers and then with the claw of a hammer. Students will discuss the difference in effort needed to remove the nail with their fingers and with the hammer claw. How and why did the hammer make the job easier? Next, students will screw a screw into a piece of wood. Students will try to unscrew the screw with their hand and then with a screwdriver. Students will discuss the difference in effort needed to remove the screw with their fingers and with the screwdriver. How and why did the screwdriver make the job easier? Caution: Make sure that all students wear safety glasses during this activity. Optional Assessment: A man has fallen into a deep hole with slippery sides. He has tried but cannot climb out. Before falling into the hole, he left a long rope, 2 fixed pulleys, and 2 movable pulleys on the ground above. Traveling with the man was his small son. The man can shout directions to his son but his son cannot pull him out or run for help. There are no ladders or anyone else to help. The only way out is to use the pulleys and rope. What should the man tell his son to do in order to get him out of the hole? Each student will write out directions that explain to the son what to do in order to get the man out of the hole and will draw a picture of the procedure to get the man out of the hole. (Give students rubric before activity.) Scoring Rubric Criteria: Completeness of directions: Apprentice -Writes few directions with no details. Basic -Writes most steps of the directions in correct order using pulleys and including a few details. Meets -Writes step-by-step directions in correct order using pulleys and including some details. Exceeds -Writes step-by-step directions in correct order using pulleys and including many details. Criteria: Correctness of diagram: Apprentice -Draws a partial diagram with no labels. Basic -Draws a diagram with most information correct and a few labels. Meets -Draws a diagram that includes the proper set-up and use of pulleys with some labels. Exceeds -Draws a diagram that includes the proper set-up and use of pulleys with all labels. Teacher Notes: Simple machines make it easier to move objects by reducing the force needed. However, they also increase the distance over which the force must be applied, so there is a trade-off. Focus Question • How can we use simple machines to make it easier to move an object? Notes Students do not need to memorize the various classes of simple machines. They should, however, have experience with various types of simple machines, and learn to recognize the advantage that each type provides.