Science SCI.IV.3.5 Grade: 6 Using Scientific Knowledge in Physical Science

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Science
SCI.IV.3.5
Grade: 6
Strand IV:
Using Scientific Knowledge in Physical Science
Standard 3:
Motion of Objects – All students will describe how things around us
move, explain why things move as they do, and demonstrate and explain
how we control the motion of objects.
Benchmark 5:
Design strategies for moving objects by application of forces,
including the use of simple machines
Constructing and Reflecting:
SCI.I.1.1 - Generate scientific questions about the world based on observation.
SCI.I.1.2 - Design and conduct scientific investigations.
• Investigate the effects of using ramps, levers, or pulleys on the amount of force needed to move objects.
SCI.I.1.4 - Use metric measurement devices to provide consistency in an investigation.
SCI.II.1.3 - Show how common themes of science, mathematics, and technology apply in real-world contexts.
Vocabulary / Key Concepts
Context
Types of simple machines:
• lever
• pulley
• screw
• inclined plane
• wedge
• wheel
• axle
• gear
Objects being moved by using simple
machines:
• wagons on inclined planes
• heavy objects moved by levers
• see-saw
• cutting with knives or axes
•
•
•
direction change
force advantage
speed and distance advantage
Knowledge and Skills
Students will: Design strategies for moving objects
using simple machines (e.g., moving furniture from
a second story)
A simple machine is a device, such as a lever,
pulley, screw, etc., for controlling the application of
forces. For example, a lever can transform a small
downward force into a large upward force. A small
twisting force on a screw can transform into a large
penetrating force into a piece of wood.
The only disadvantage in simple machines is that
an external force must be applied over a greater
distance in order to move an object a small
distance. With a lever, a force must push down on
the lever at a longer distance to lift an object a
smaller distance. A screw must be twisted many
times in order to move it into a piece of wood a
shorter distance.
Resources continued from column on right.
Videoconferences Available
For more information, see
www.remc11.k12.mi.us/dl or call Janine Lim 4717725x101 or email [email protected]
IV.3.MS.5
• Arms, Armor and Simple Machines from the
Cleveland Museum of Art
• Gadget Works from COSI Columbus (a
science museum)
• Simple Machines from COSI Toledo (a
science museum)
• Simple Machines from the Liberty Science
Center
• The Simpler, The Better from the National
Science Center
• The Incredible Lever from the NASA Glenn
Research Center
6th Grade Science Curriculum
Technology Resources
IV.3.MS.5 Design strategies for moving objects by
application of forces, including the use of simple
machines
Vernier Probes available: Force Sensor
Resources
Coloma Resources:
Motion, Forces & Energy Text (Chapter 4)
pp.118-136
Three Labs over simple machines.
1. Lever lab
2. Pulley Lab
3. Incline Plane (attached)
Other Resources:
• Michigan Teacher Network Resources
•
The Exploratorium – Sport Science
•
Scope Unit – Forces and Motion
•
Teach-Nology – Mechanics – tons of
lessons on force and motion.
•
IL Institute of Technology – Smile Program
– Physics – Mechanics – TONS of lessons
vetted and posted by teachers –
AWESOME! See the simple machine
lesson posted by Tom Jenson – FUN.
•
Roller Coaster Physics – entire online book
of applied physics including lessons, labs,
and prep. Outstanding.
•
Discovery Online – Build Your Own Coaster
•
Discovery Channel Feature – Thrill Rides
•
•
“Operation Physics”
Bill Nye: Simple Machines
Science Explosion p. 58
•
Instruction
Assessment
Benchmark Question: How can we control the motions
of objects?
Coloma Required Assessment:
Chapter Test on Simple Machines (attached)
Focus Question: How can we use simple machines to
make work easier?
Instruction I
Juanita is building a fireplace inside her home. She
needs to bring the bricks from outside into her living
room. The living room is one meter higher than the
ground level where the bricks are.
Describe how you would use simple machines to
complete this task. Also include drawings to help
explain. (Give as many examples of different simple
machines as possible.)
Instruction II
Students will work in small groups to complete the
following activities:
Students will pound a large nail into a piece of wood. The
teacher should make sure they leave at least three cm of
the top of the nail above the board. Students will try to
remove the nail with their fingers and then with the claw
of a hammer. Students will discuss the difference in effort
needed to remove the nail with their fingers and with the
hammer claw. How and why did the hammer make the
job easier?
Next, students will screw a screw into a piece of wood.
Students will try to unscrew the screw with their hand and
then with a screwdriver. Students will discuss the
difference in effort needed to remove the screw with their
fingers and with the screwdriver. How and why did the
screwdriver make the job easier?
Caution: Make sure that all students wear safety glasses
during this activity.
Optional Assessment:
A man has fallen into a deep hole with slippery
sides. He has tried but cannot climb out. Before
falling into the hole, he left a long rope, 2 fixed
pulleys, and 2 movable pulleys on the ground
above. Traveling with the man was his small son.
The man can shout directions to his son but his
son cannot pull him out or run for help. There are
no ladders or anyone else to help. The only way
out is to use the pulleys and rope. What should
the man tell his son to do in order to get him out of
the hole?
Each student will write out directions that explain
to the son what to do in order to get the man out
of the hole and will draw a picture of the
procedure to get the man out of the hole.
(Give students rubric before activity.)
Scoring Rubric
Criteria: Completeness of directions:
Apprentice -Writes few directions with no details.
Basic -Writes most steps of the directions in
correct order using pulleys and including a few
details.
Meets -Writes step-by-step directions in correct
order using pulleys and including some details.
Exceeds -Writes step-by-step directions in correct
order using pulleys and including many details.
Criteria: Correctness of diagram:
Apprentice -Draws a partial diagram with no
labels.
Basic -Draws a diagram with most information
correct and a few labels.
Meets -Draws a diagram that includes the proper
set-up and use of pulleys with some labels.
Exceeds -Draws a diagram that includes the
proper set-up and use of pulleys with all labels.
Teacher Notes:
Simple machines make it easier to move objects by reducing the force needed. However, they also increase
the distance over which the force must be applied, so there is a trade-off.
Focus Question
• How can we use simple machines to make it easier to move an object?
Notes
Students do not need to memorize the various classes of simple machines. They should, however, have
experience with various types of simple machines, and learn to recognize the advantage that each type
provides.
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