# Exercise 4.41 (p. 153 of the 5 edition)

```Exercise 4.41 (p. 153 of the 5th edition)
An experiment is conducted to test the effect of an anticoagulant drug on
rats. A random sample of 4 rats is employed in the experiment. If the drug
manufacturer's claim that 80% of rats given the drug will be favorably
affected by the drug is indeed true, answer the following questions.
First, define the Binomial random variable X as the number of rats favorably
affected out of a random sample of 4 rats.
Then X is distributed as the Binomial R.V. with the distribution Bin(4, 0.8)
(i) What is the probability that none of the 4 rats will be favorably affected?
4
0
4
P(X=0)=  (0.8) (1 − 0.8) = 1 &times; 1 &times; 0.0016 = 0.0016
0
(ii) What is the probability that one of the 4 rats will be favorably affected?
4
1
3
P(X=1)=  (0.8) (1 − 0.8) = 4 &times; 0.8 &times; 0.008 = 0.0256
1
(iii) What is the probability that one or fewer of the 4 rats will be favorably
affected?
P(X ≤ 1) = P(X=0 or X=1) = P(X=0)+ P(X=1) = 0.0016 + 0.0256 = 0.0272
(iv) How many of 100 rats given the drug would you expect to be
favorably affected? What property of X are you using ?
In this case, X is distributed as Bin(100,0.8)
Expected value of X = E(X) = nπ = 100 &times; 0.8 = 80
```