# Repa rameterization, Restrictions, and

```Reparameterization,
Restrictions,
and
Example 3.3 Two-way
classication
Avoiding
Generalized Inverses
Consider the \cell mean&quot; model.
i = 1; 2
Yijk = ij + ijk j = 1; 2
k = 1; 2
Models that may appear to be
dierent at rst sight, may be
equivalent in many ways.
where ijk NID(0; 2)
231
230
The \eects&quot; model:
Yijk = + i + j + ij + ijk
Matrix notation:
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
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6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
Y111
1000
Y112
1000
Y121
0100
Y122 = 0 1 0 0
Y211
0010
Y212
0010
Y221
0001
Y222
0001
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
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2
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6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
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6
6
6
6
6
4
where
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
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7
7
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7
7
7
7
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7
5
2
6
6
6
6
6
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6
6
6
6
6
6
4
11
12
21
22
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
111
112
121
+ 122
211
212
221
222
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
or
Y = W + 3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
i = 1; 2
j = 1; 2
k = 1; 2
ijk NID(0; 2)
Matrix notation:
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
64
Y111
Y112
Y121
Y122
Y211
Y212
Y221
Y222
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
75
=
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
64
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
75
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
1
2
1
2
11
12
21
22
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
or
Y = X + 232
233
The models are \equivalent&quot;:
the space spanned by the
columns of W is the same as
the space spanned by columns
of X .
You can nd matrices F and G such
that
0
0
0
0
W =X 0
1
0
0
0
2
6
6
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6
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6
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6
6
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0 = XF
0
0
0
1
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
and
1
X = W 11
1
= WG
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
64
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
234
Then,
(i) rank(X ) = rank (W )
(ii) Estimated mean responses
are the same:
Y^ = X (X T X ) X T Y
= W (W T W ) 1 W T Y
or
Y^ = PX Y = PW Y
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
75
235
Example 3.1 Regression model for
the yield of a chemical process.
Yi = 0 + 1X1i + 2X2i + i
&quot;
yield
&quot;
temperature
&quot;
time
An \equivalent&quot; model is
(iii) Residual vectors are the same
e = Y Y^ = (I PX )Y
= (I PW )Y
236
Yi = 0 + 1(X1i X 1:) +
2(X2i X 2:) + i
237
For the rst model:
Y1
1 X11 X21
1
Y2
1 X12 X22 0
2
Y3 = 1 X13 X23 1 + 3
Y4
1 X14 X24 2
4
Y5
1 X15 X25
5
= X + 2
6
6
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3
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2
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3
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7
5
2
6
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4
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
64
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
The space spanned by the columns
of X is the same as the space
spanned by the columns of W .
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
75
and
For the second model:
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
Y1 777
Y2 7777
Y3 7777
Y4 7775
Y5
3
=
=
X11
X12
X13
X14
X15
W + 2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
1
1
1
1
1
X 1
X 1
X 1
X 1
X 1
X21
X22
X23
X24
X25
X 2 777 2 3 666 1 777
X 2 7777 666 0 777 6666 2 7777
X 2 7777 6664 1 7775 + 6666 3 7777
X 2 7775 2 6664 4 7775
5
X 2
3
1
X=W 0
0
2
66
66
66
66
4
2
3
X 1 X 2
3
77
77
77
77
5
1 0 = WG
0 1
1 X 1 X 2
0 = XF
W =X 0 1
0 0 1
2
66
66
66
66
4
3
77
77
77
77
5
and
Y^ = PX Y = PW Y
e = Y Y^ = (I PX )Y = (I PW )Y
238
Defn 3.9: Consider two linear
models:
(1) E (Y) = X and V ar(Y) = and
(2) E (Y) = W and V ar(Y) = where X is an n k model matrix
and W is an n q model matrix.
We say that one model is a
reparameterization of the other if
there is a k q matrix F and a q k
matrix G such that
239
The previous examples illustrate
that if one model is a reparameterization of the other, then
(i) rank(X ) = rank(W )
(ii) Least squares estimates of the
response means are the same,
i.e., Y^ = PX Y = PW Y
(iii) Residuals are the same, i.e.,
e = Y Y^ = (I PX )Y = (I Pw)Y
W = XF and X = W G :
240
241
Reasons for reparameterizing models:
(iv) An unbiased estimator for 2 is
provided by
MSE = SSE=(n rank(X ))
where,
(i) Reduce the number of parameters
Obtain a full rank model
Avoid use of generalized
inverses
(ii) Make computations easier
In the previous examples,
W T W is a diagonal matrix
and (W T W ) 1 is easy to compute.
SSE = eT e = YT (I PX )Y
= YT (I PW )Y
(iii) More meaningfull interpretation
of parameters.
242
243
Result 3.12. Suppose two linear
models,
(1) E (Y) = X V ar(Y) = and
(2) E (Y) = W V ar(Y) = are reparameterizations of each
other, and let F be a matrix such
that W = XF . Then
(i) If CT is estimable for the rst
model, then = F and CT F is
estimable under Model 2.
244
(ii) Let ^ = (X T X ) X T Y and
^ = (W T W ) W T Y. If CT is
estimable, then
CT ^ = CT F ^
(iii) if H0 : CT = d is testable under
one model, then H0 : CT F = d
is testable under the other.
245
Proof:
(i) If CT is estimable for the frist
model, then (by Result 3.9 (i))
CT = aT X for some a :
(ii) Since CT is estimable, the
unique b.l.u.e. is
CT ^ = CT (X T X ) X T Y
= aT X T (X T X ) X T Y
= aT PX Y for some a
Hence,
CT F = aT X F = aT W
which implies that CT F is
estimable for the second model.
246
Since CT F is also estimable, the
unique b.l.u.e. for CT F is
247
Hence, the estimators are the same
if PX = PW . To show this, note
that
PX W = PX XF = XF = W
which implies
CT F (W T W ) W T Y
= aT XF (W T W ) W T Y
= aT W (W T W ) W T Y
= aT PW Y
for the same a.
PX PW = PX W (W T W ) W T
= W (W T W ) W T
= PW
248
249
Example 3.2 An eects model
By a similar argument
PW PX = PX
Yij = + i + ij
Then,
PW = P + W T
= (PX PX )T
= PWT PXT
= PW P X
= PX
This model can be expressed as
Y11
1100
11
Y12
1100 12
Y21 = 1 0 1 0 1 + 21
Y31
1 0 0 1 2
31
Y32
1 0 0 1 3
32
Y33
1001
33
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
64
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
75
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
251
250
Reparameterize the model as
The unique OLS estimator for
= (0 1 2)T is
Yij = 0 + 1X1ij + 2X2ij + ij
using \othogonal&quot; polynomial contrasts (for factors with equally
spaced levels and balanced designs)
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
Y11
Y12
Y21
Y31
Y32
Y33
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
1
1
1
= 1
1
1
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
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6
6
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6
6
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6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
p12 p16
p12 p16
0 p26
p12 p16
p12 p16
p12 p16
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
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7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
11
12
0
1 + 21
31
2
32
33
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
252
b = (X T X ) 1 X T Y
^0
67:000
= ^1 = 5:6568
4:8989
^2
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
2
66
66
66
66
66
4
3
77
77
77
77
77
5
Note that
^0 + ^1( p12 ) + ^2( p16 ) = 61 = Y1:
^0 + ^1(0) + ^2( p26 ) = 71 = Y2:
^0 + ^1( p12 ) + ^2( p16 ) = 69 = Y3:
253
Write this model as Y = X + where
Reparameterize the model using
Helmert contrasts:
2
6
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6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
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6
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6
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6
4
Y11
1
Y12
1
Y21 = 1
Y31
1
Y32
1
Y33
1
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
6
6
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6
6
6
6
6
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6
6
6
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6
4
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
11
12
0
1 + 21
31
2
32
33
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
1
1
X = 11
1
1
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
Then,
1
1
1
0
0
0
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
0
and = 1
2
2
66
66
66
66
4
n:
Y::
X T Y = Y2: Y1:
2Y3: Y1: Y2:
2
66
66
66
66
4
3
3
77
77
77
77
5
254
255
The unique OLS estimator for
= (0 1 2)T is
Restrictions (side conditions)
b = (X T X ) 1 X T Y
Y::
^0
67
1 (Y
Y1:) = ^1 = 5
=
2 2:
1 (Y
^2
1
(Y1:+2 Y2:))
3 3:
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
3
77
77
77
77
5
n2 n1 2n3 n1 n2 777
n
n
n1 + n2
n1 n2 777
2
1
4
2n3 n1 n2 n1 n2 n1 + n2 + 4n3 5
2
6
6
X T X = 6666
and
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
Note that
^0 + ^1( 1) + ^2( 1) = 61 = Y1:
^0 + ^1(1) + ^2( 1) = 71 = Y2:
^0 + ^1(0) + ^2(2) = 69 = Y3:
256
Give meaning to individual
parameters
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
Make individual parameters
estimable
Create a full rank model matrix
Avoid the use of generalized
inverses
257
Impose the restriction
3 = 0
Then,
E (Y1j ) = + 1 for j = 1; :::; n1
E (Y2j ) = + 2 for j = 1; :::; n2
E (Y3j ) = for j = 1; :::; n3
Example 3.2 An eects model
Yij = + i + ij
This model can be expressed as
Y11
1100
11
Y12
1100 12
Y21 = 1 0 1 0 1 + 21
Y31
1 0 0 1 2
31
Y32
1 0 0 1 3
32
Y33
1001
33
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
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6
4
3
7
7
7
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7
7
7
7
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7
7
7
7
5
2
6
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6
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6
6
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6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
and
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
Y11
110
Y12
110
Y21 = 1 0 1
Y31
100
Y32
100
Y33
100
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
2
66
66
66
66
4
11
12
1 + 21
31
2
32
33
3
77
77
77
77
5
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
258
Write this model as Y = X + where
1
1
X = 11
1
1
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
Then,
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
and = 1
2
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
n: n1 n2
X T X = n1 n1 0
n2 0 n2
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
and
Y::
T
X Y = Y1:
Y2:
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
77
77
77
77
5
259
and the unique OLS estimator for
= ( 1 2)T is
b = (X T X ) 1 X T Y
1 1
1
1
n
+
n
1
3
1
= n 1 n1
3
n
+
1 1 2n2n3
Y3:
^
= Y1: Y3: = ^ 1
^ 2
Y2: Y3:
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
64
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
66
66
66
66
66
64
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
260
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
3
77
77
77
77
77
75
2
66
66
66
66
66
4
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
75
2
66
66
66
66
4
Y::
Y1:
Y2:
3
77
77
77
77
5
3
77
77
77
77
77
5
261
Consider the model Yij = + i + ij
with the restriction 1 + 2 + 3 = 0.
Then, 3 = 1 2 and
E (Y1j ) = + 1 for j = 1; :::; n1
E (Y2j ) = + 2 for j = 1; :::; n2
E (Y3j ) = + 3
= 1 2
for j = 1; :::; n3
and
Y11
1 1 0
11
Y12
1 1 0 12
Y21 = 1 0 1 1 + 21
Y31
1 1 1 2
31
Y32
1 1 1
32
Y33
1 1 1
33
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
This model is Y = X + with
1
1
X = 11
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
0
0
1
1
1
1
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
and = 1
2
2
66
66
66
66
4
The unique OLS estimator for
= ( 1 2)T is
b = (X T X ) 1 X T Y
=
=
2
66
66
66
66
64
2
66
66
66
66
4
n1
n2
n:
n1 n3 n2 n3 3777
n3 n1 + n3 n3 77777
n3 n3 n2 + n3 75
Y::
3
77
77
77
77
5
Y1: Y::
Y2: Y::
=
2
66
66
66
66
4
1
2
66
66
66
4
E (Y1j ) = for j = 1; :::; n1
E (Y2j ) = + 2 for j = 1; :::; n2
E (Y3j ) = + 3 for j = 1; :::; n3
and
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
Y::
Y1: Y3:
Y2: Y3:
^ 3777
^ 1 77777
^ 2 5
262
Consider the model Yij = + i + ij
with the restriction 1 = 0: Then,
3
77
77
77
77
5
263
This model is Y = X + , with
1
1
X = 11
1
1
2
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
4
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
and = 2
3
2
66
66
66
66
4
3
77
77
77
77
5
The unique OLS estimator for
= ( 1 2)T is
b = (X T X ) 1 X T Y
100
Y11
100
Y12
Y21 = 1 1 0
101
Y31
101
Y32
101
Y33
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
11
12
2 + 21
31
3
32
33
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
2
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
3
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
5
264
=
=
2
66
66
66
66
64
2
66
66
66
66
4
n: n2 n3 3777
n2 n2 0 77777
n3 0 n3 75
Y1:
Y2: Y1:
Y3: Y1:
3
77
77
77
77
5
=
1
2
66
66
66
66
4
2
66
66
66
4
Y:: 77
Y2: 77775
Y3:
3
^ 3777
^ 2 77777
^ 3 5
265
3
77
77
77
5
The restrictions (i.e. the choice of
one particular solution to the norma
equations) have no eect on the
OLS estimates of estimable quantities. The estimates treatment
means are:
E (Y^1j ) = ^
= Y1: = 61
E (Y^2j ) = ^ + ^ 2
= Y2: = 71
E (Y^3j ) = ^ + ^ 3
= Y3: = 69
266
```