# Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Simple Linear Regression ```Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Simple Linear Regression
The variability in Y values can be partitioned into two pieces.
Pn
i=1 (Yi
− Ȳ )2
Pn
=
i=1 (Ŷi
− Ȳ )2
+
Pn
i=1 (Yi
− Ŷi )2
Total Sum of Squares
=
Regression Sum of Squares
+
Error (or Residual) Sum of Squares
SSTO
=
SSREG
+
SSE
We can organize the results of a simple linear regression analysis in an ANOVA table.
Source
D.F.
Sum of Squares
Mean Square
F
Regression
dfREG
SSREG
M SREG
M SREG
M SE
Error
dfE
SSE
M SE
Total
dfT O
SST O
Source
D.F.
Sum of Squares
− Ȳ
)2
Pn
(Ŷi −Ȳ )2
1
)2
Pn
(Yi −Ŷi )2
n−2
1
Pn
Error
n−2
Pn
− Ŷi
Total
n−1
Pn
− Ȳ )2
Regression
The F -statistic
M SREG
M SE
i=1 (Ŷi
i=1 (Yi
i=1 (Yi
Mean Square
i=1
F
M SREG
M SE
P-value
P (T 2 ≥
M SREG
M SE )
T 2 ∼ F (dfREG , dfE )
P-value
P (T 2 ≥
M SREG
M SE )
T 2 ∼ F (1, n − 2)
i=1
is used to test
H0 : &micro;{Y |X} = β0 versus HA : &micro;{Y |X} = β0 + β1 X for some β1 6= 0.
or H0 : β1 = 0 vs. HA : β1 6= 0 for short. The test is equivalent to the t-test that we learned about previously
because
(1) F =
M SREG
β̂12
2
=h
i2 = t
M SE
SE(β̂1 )
and
(2) T 2 ∼ F with 1 and n − 2 d.f. ⇐⇒ T ∼ t with n − 2 d.f.
The F -statistic
M SREG
M SE
is a special case of the F -statistic used to compare full and reduced models.
F =
Recall that our null and alternative hypotheses are
H0 : &micro;{Y |X} = β0 versus HA : &micro;{Y |X} = β0 + β1 X for some β1 6= 0.
The full model corresponds to the situation where β1 can be any value. The reduced model forces β1 to be
case of simple linear regression; and show that the resulting reduced vs. full model F -statistic is the same as
SREG
F = MM
SE .
Because SST O = SSREG + SSE, we may write 1 =
SSE
SST O
SSREG
SST O
+
SSE
SST O .
is the proportion of total variation in the Y values that was not explained by the regression of Y on X.
SSE
SSREG
The remaining proportion of variation in the Y values is 1 − SST
O = SST O . This quantity – known as the
coefficient of determination – is the proportion of the variation in the Y values that was explained by the
regression of Y on X.
It can be shown that the coefficient of determination is equal to the square of the sample linear correlation coefficient between X and Y .
SSE
SSREG
1−
=
= r2
SST O
SST O
```