Global, Human, and Ethical Impacts Impacts Human • Throughout time, humanity has used natural resources, animals, plants and inanimate materials, for its survival, consumption, and enjoyment. • It is often taken for granted things and resources will always be here. • Many times short term monetary gain is considered a priority. Impacts Continued… Global • Population: - is growing at an exponential rate. - shows a continual change in human needs and wants. • Energy: non-renewable resources are becoming more and more scarce. Ethics • A set of moral principles or values; a theory or system of moral values. • The discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation. Ethical Design Dilemmas • Situations in which decisions you make are in conflict with what may or may not be morally correct. • Sometimes this is obvious right away, and other times it is not. • Solutions to open-ended design problems have dilemmas that designers face when creating the product. • Let’s look at some pictures of products or things and discuss the ethics involved. Inventions • What are the ethical consequences suggested in these pictures? Steps in resolving ethical design decisions 1. Moral Clarity- identify the relevant moral values. 2. Conceptual clarity- clarify key concepts. 3. Just the facts- obtain all relevant information. 4. Informed about options- Consider all genuine options and alternative solutions. 5. Well-reasoned- Make a reasonable decision. Design Analogy • Engineering design as a metaphor or model for thinking about moral decision making- in general, not just within engineering. • Like design, moral choice often involves alternative permissible solutions to dilemmas. Product Lifecycle • Definition • Five Steps Raise and Extract • All consumer products begin their lifecycle with a dependence on the natural environment. • Some form of energy is always required to extract the natural resources from the earth or its atmosphere. Process • Raw materials are processed or refined. • Energy is required for the processing and refining. Manufacture Manufacture • Additional energy is required as the processed or refined materials move through the manufacturing and assembly process. Use Use • Consumer products are transported to stores (consuming additional energy) and are ready for purchase. • Products remain at this stage as long as they are usable or repairable. Dispose Dispose • When the product is no longer of use to us and we “get rid” of it. EPA Guidelines • EPA: Environmental Protection Agency. This organization’s mission is to protect human health and the environment. EPA Guidelines • The EPA works to develop and enforce regulations that implement environmental laws enacted by Congress. EPA Guidelines • The EPA is responsible for researching and setting national standards for a variety of environmental programs. • The EPA delegates to states and tribes the responsibility for issuing permits and monitoring and enforcing compliance. OSHA Guidelines • OSHA-Occupational Safety and Health Administration • OSHA's mission is to assure the safety and health of America's workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health. OSHA Guidelines • To establish and maintain safe workplace environments, OSHA enforces standards and reaches out to employers and employees through technical assistance and consultation programs. Recycle Products made from recycled Material Why Recycle? The Process • • • • • Products to be recycled. The consumer’s role. The collector’s role. The remanufacturing process. The finished product. The key to recycling is the consumer! Plantation to paper and paper to paper: http://www.pneb.com.au/recycling.html Non-recyclable items • What can we do? • How do we dispose of them properly?