Dilemmas of Democracy Plato’s Cave • Plato’s Cave • Ideology – Myths and Reality • • • • Competing Myths False Security Myths Assumption Myths Desire and Hope Myths – Political Ideology • Politician’s and Interest Groups use of • Need for Political Education The Purposes of Government • Three Principles – Maintaining Order • Original Purpose • Thomas Hobbs – Leviathan, “State of Nature” – Leaders protect sovereignty and provide survival • John Locke – Two Treatises of Government, “life, liberty, property” • Karl Marx – Communist Manifesto, “economic equality” – Providing Public Goods • Services that benefit all in a society • Requires Taxes – can be controversial – Promoting Equality • Modern Purpose – Economic Equality - Increases Taxes – Controversial – Social Equality – Can be Controversial – Political Equality – Not often Controversial Concepts of Government • Values pursued by government – Freedom, positive • Freedom of = Liberty • Freedom from = Immunity – Order, negative • Preserve, protect, and maintain social order – Equality, positive • Political Equality – Difficult to maintain • Social Equality – Class structure • Equality of opportunity – Key word is opportunity = Positive reaction • Equality of outcome – Key word is outcome = negative outcome The Two Dilemmas of Government • The Original Dilemma: – Freedom vs. order – Protect Life and Property – Principles Conflict – Finding a balance • The modern Dilemma: – Freedom vs. equality – Promote Social Equality – Principles Conflict – Finding a Balance Ideology and the Scope of Government Continue • Political Ideology • Anarchism • Libertarianism • Liberalism – Democratic Liberalism • Totalitarianism – George Orwell’s 1984 • Economic Ideology • • • • • Laissez faire Capitalism Democratic Socialism Socialism Communism Continue • Conservatives – Small Government Economics • Support free enterprise – Big Government Social Order • Restrict behavior • Liberals – Small Government Social Order • More personal freedoms – Big Government Economics • Support equality The Scale • The Political Spectrum Scale – Liberals = Center Left (Moderates) • Improving society • Supports Change – Conservatives = Center Right (Moderates) • Providing Security • Supports Tradition – Radicals = Far Left • Progressive society – Reactionaries = Far Right • Restoring Society – Revolutionary Radicals = Extreme Left • Bold New Society – Revolutionary Reactionaries = Extreme Right • Glorious Resurrection The Bell Curve RRad Rad Lib Con The Left v The Right • The Left – More Government and Less Government • Values equality and freedom over order – Positive view of human nature • Great economic, social, and political opportunities – Supports Social Mobility – Egalitarian Principles • The Right – Less Government and More Government • Values order over freedom – Negative view of human nature • Values Freedom over equality – Equality is natural – Talents should be basis of mobility Compare of the Left and the Right • Moderates – Liberals and Conservatives • • • • More in common then with their extreme counterparts Will compromise to reach goals Encourages Stability of the System to reach long term goals Mild political engagement • Activists – Radicals and Reactionaries • Active engagement in politics – The work horse of politics • Feel threatened by opposing side – Believe people will come to their side if they are told the “Truth” • Rarely Compromise • Extremists – Revolutionary Radicals and Revolutionary Reactionaries • More in common then with moderates • Violent and Totalitarian • Will not compromise and will die for beliefs Level of Intensity • As one moves outward on the Political Spectrum Scale their intensity of conviction increases RRad Rad RReact Lib Con React Two-Dimensional Ideology Scale • Accurate classifications require looking at values of freedom, order, and equality – Libertarians value freedom more than order or equality – Liberals value freedom more than order, but not more than equality – Conservatives value freedom more than equality, but are willing to restrict it to preserve social order – Communitarians favor programs that support both order and equality Continue Theories of Democracy • Democracy – Greek, demos (masses) and kratos (power) • Procedural democratic theory – How gov makes decisions – Participatory (direct) vs. representative democracy (indirect) • Substantive view of democracy – Substance of gov policy – Civil liberties, civil rights, social rights, and economic rights Majoritairian Model of Democracy • The majoritarian model of democracy: – Interprets government "by the people" as government by the majority of people – Assumes mass participation in politics is required to ensure government accountability – Assumes that the people will be well informed on political issues and make thoughtful voting decisions – Encourages citizens to participate directly in decision making through the institutional mechanisms of the referendum and the initiative. – Is this the United States? The Pluralist Model of Democracy • The pluralist model of democracy: – Is based on the idea of pluralism, which assumes that people in modern society often form groupings along economic, religious, ethnic, or cultural lines – Involves people with similar interests form interest groups to try to influence government policymakers Cont. • The pluralist model of democracy: – Interprets government "by the people" to mean government by people operating through competing interest groups – Favors a decentralized and organizationally complex governmental structure that provides these groups open access to public officials who consider their views. – Is this the United States Elite Theory • A small group of people makes most important government decisions • Oligarchy, a system of goverment in which power is concentrated in the hands of a few • Is this the United States?