Heat Study Guide What is heat? • Heat is the transfer of energy from a warm object to a cold object. What are the three temperature scales and who uses them? • Fahrenheit (used mostly in United States) • Celsius (used mostly in science classrooms and in Europe – easy to convert) • Kelvin (is the official Scientific International temperature scale for laboratories world wide) What makes a good insulator and what makes a good conductor? • Conductors transfer heat very quickly. Examples (curling iron, iron pots, cookie sheets, copper pipes, stove coils) • Insulators transfer heat very slowly so they can either keep heat in or keep heat out. Examples(flannel shirt, oven mitts, plastic spoons, fiberglass insulation, coolers/thermos) How do thermometers work? • Hot things expand so the liquid in the thermometer (usually alcohol) goes up when you warm it up. • Cold things contract so the liquid in the thermometer goes down when you cool it off. What is absolute zero? • The lowest temperature possible is 0 K. It means all molecules stop moving. It has never been reached! What are the differences between conduction, convection, & radiation? • Conduction is the type of heat transfer that requires direct contact between objects. • Shaking hands, licking an ice cream cone, a metal spoon in a hot bowl of soup, frying an egg. What are the differences between conduction, convection, & radiation? • Convection is the circulation of heat in a liquid or gas. • Pictures will usually show arrows!! • Heating your house, hot air balloons, wind & ocean currents. What are the differences between conduction, convection, & radiation? • Radiation is the transfer of heat through open space. It is the reason our planet survives! • Sun, lamps, radiators, microwaves, fire. Does heat depend on mass? Why or Why not? • Heat depends on mass because it varies with the amount of energy that is transferred. • Temperature does NOT depend on mass. A drop of boiling water is the same temperature as a pot of boiling water. How is it possible for the sun to warm the planets? • The sun radiates its light and heat so it can travel outward in all directions through space. It does not need air to travel! How does a lava lamp work? • The base of the lamp heats the material. As it gets hotter the bubbles rise to the top (less density). When they cool off they sink back down to the bottom (more density). What is the difference between temperature and heat? • Heat is the transfer of thermal energy from a warm object to a cold object. • Temperature is the measurement of the thermal energy in an object.