Chapter 33: Globalization in the New Millennium

Chapter 33: Globalization in the
New Millennium
Warm Up
1. Why does America back guerilla movements in
Central and South America?
2. Who brings China economic greatness?
3. How does he do so?
4. Leader of the Soviet Union in 1985:
5. Two of his reforms:
6. Why does the UN step in in Kuwait?
7. What is Malthus’ argument and how do we see it in
play today?
Global Economic and Political Currents
A. Interconnected Economy
1. Impact of September 11, 2001: Wake of 9/11 rate
of growth in world trade fell from 13% in 2000 to
1% in 2001. US economy was the largest
economy in the world
2. Economic growth in China and India: large
population indicate they will be future world
economic powers.
3. Demand for oil in 1999: 20 dollars a barrel
4. Demand for oil in 2006: 70 dollars a barrel
(today 54 dollars a barrel)
5. Many countries formed free trade zones—
European Union (EU) and NAFTA
EU: European Union is a politico-economic union of
28 member states that are located primarily in
Europe. The EU operates through a system of
supranational institutions and intergovernmental
negotiated decisions by the member states.
NAFTA: is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico,
and the United States, creating a trilateral rulesbased trade bloc in North America.
Shanghai Cooperation Organization was formed in
– Countries: China, Russia, 4 former USSR regions
– Purpose: collective security and reduce trade
barriers and migration
7. Purpose of the WTO and IMF
WTO: World Trade Organization was founded in
1995 to reduce trade barriers and enforce
international trade agreements.
IMF: International Monetary Fund provides
assistance to countries in economic troubles.
8. Impact after the Cold War: aid to poor nations fell
but world leaders have pledged to do more to
help the world’s poorest nations especially in
B. Globalization and Democracy
1. Democracy throughout the world has increased.
2. In 2003, 140 countries held regular elections
3. Appeal of democracy: it allows for the peaceful
resolution of differences among countries social,
cultural, and regional groups. Reduces threat of
war between democratic nations
4. Democratic institutions gained ground in eastern
Europe and in Russia during the last decade.
5. BJP in India: (Bharatiya Janata Party) increased
tensions between Hindus and Muslims. 2004,
BJP lost a national election to Congress Party and
handed over power of India
6. Elections in Africa (except South Africa): been used
by would be dictators as the first step to
establish political and military dominance.
C. Regime Change in Iraq and
1. US involvement in Iraq: target
by the US because of the belief
that Iraq and Saddam Hussein
possessed weapons of mass
destruction and were harboring
and fostering terrorists.
2. US involvement in Afghanistan:
target by the US because of the
belief that the Taliban and Osama
bin Laden were harboring there.
3. Hamid Karzai was elected
interim president in 2002 in
(Today Mohammad Ashraf Ghani is the leader of Afganistan)
(Today Fuad Masum is the leader of Iraq)
4. 2004: Afghanistan's first democratically elected
5. Problems in Afghanistan: government has not
proven strong enough to control warlords in
areas and continually fights the Taliban to regain
power. The majority of their income comes from
opium production.
6. March 20, 2003: US began their strike against Iraq.
President Bush stated that the reason for the
invasion was to liberate the Iraqi people from
oppression and install democracy.
Bush announcement on Iraq:
8. January 2005 in Iraq: 1st constitutionally elected
government but enduring guerilla insurgency
9. Shi-ite and Sunni impact in Iraq: conflict continues
verging on a civil war
10. Hezbollah in Lebanon: Shi-ite militant and
political organization gaining majority of seats in
the Lebanese parliament.
11. Hamas in Palestine: designed terrorist
organization who gained majority of seats in the
Palestine Governing Council.
II. Trends and Visions
A. Faith and Politics
1. Conservative opposition in the US included:
abortion, homosexuality, marriage of priests,
admission of women into priesthood.
2. Israel withdraws from Gaza in 2005 and plans to
withdraw from parts of the West Bank.
3. Hindu zealots made BJP party a powerful political
Gaza Strip:
4. 1979 in Iran: Birth of the Islamic Republic in Iran
made the current Muslim assertiveness visible to
5. Usama bin Laden and al-Qaeda: Saudi-born leader
of al-Qaeda and has sponsored attacks on
American embassies in Kenya, attacks on the USS
Cole, World Trade Center, and the Pentagon
6. Impact of al-Qaeda on the Muslim world: the
increasing violence has many peaceful Muslims
worried and they find themselves suspect
because of their beliefs.
B. Universal Rights and Values
1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948:
sought to protect rights of individuals; derived
from European and American viewpoints which
make some counties skeptic.
2. Violations of Human Rights: Torture, imprisonment
without a trial, execution by death squad,
3. US View on International Criminal Court: US
citizens should be exempt from International
4. US view of prisoners during the “war on
terrorism”: did not have to be treated in
accordance with the Geneva Convention
5. Kyoto Agreement: Agreement by developed
nations to reduce greenhouse emissions. US
withdraws from agreement and brings charges of
hypocrisy on America
C. Women’s Rights
1. Feminist movement in the west was concerned
with: voting rights, equal access to education,
end to gender discrimination, and sexual
2. Nonwestern women concerned with: morality and
family life, oppression of women, struggle for
women’s rights internationally
3. Goals that promise to lead to better gender
equality: increasing women education, better
employment opportunities, political
participation, control of fertility.
III. Global Culture
A. The Media and the Message
1. Nonwestern government control of media:
government monopolies ensured that national
news would be unified in their message.
2. CNN and Al-Jazeera:
CNN-American news organization with the
American viewpoint.
Al-Jazeera-based in Persian Gulf interprets news
about the middle east from their perspective.
3. Internet first transformed business and education
B. The Spread of Pop Culture
1. Invention of the phonograph opened pop culture
around the world.
2. Impact of mass production and advertising on the
world market: international goods and cultures
are in markets throughout the world.
C. Emerging Global Culture
1. Examples of globalization at the elite level: space
missions, technology researchers, collaboration
in the business world
2. English is the global language
3. Impact of a global language: emergence of an
international literature in English.
4. Western universities have become the model for
higher education around the world.
D. Enduring Cultural Diversity
1. Impact of the economic success of Asia: calls into
question the long standing assumption that all of
the best notions we instill emerge in the west.