Learning and Performance

Learning and
Identify the different stages of
learning and understand their
relevance in sport
Apply our knowledge of each
stage to practical examples
Recapping on previous knowledge
• Go through test answers, look at model
New Knowledge
Create a mind map using the sheet provided. List
as many key points as you can which would
make the beginner, different from the expert
Stages of Learning Definition
The stages a learner goes through from a
beginner to mastering a skill
The Three Stages of Learning
•Cognitive Stage
•Associative Stage
Fitts & Posner (1967) identified three
phases of learning
Expert Phase
Intermediate Phase
Beginners Phase
• Learner is still trying to understand the demands of the task, putting
together a mental model of what is required. (Pre-practice stage)
• The coach must ensure they acquire a mental picture through the use of
demos, guidance and key cues
• The learner must give all their attention to the skill
• As they begin to attempt the skill they will make many gross errors
• Feedback must be terminal, clear simple and limited
• Performer gradually becomes more successful and makes fewer errors
• Stage of rapid improvement, skill actions become smoother, more
accurate, better timed
• Performer are able to make use of some intrinsic feedback and
compare performance to the mental model
• Can begin to pay attention to concurrent feedback. Begin to make
sense of more complex cues
• Skills are practiced under a variety of conditions
• Learner develops the skill of selective attention
• Expert Phase
• Skills require less thought, performed automatically
• Skills become habitual / grooved
• Learner only concentrates on relevant cues
• Able to concentrate on strategy and tactics
• Very few errors
• Movements become smooth, efficient and accurate
• Performer can analyse their own performance and adjust their
• Can focus on fine aspects of technique
• Watch the following video clips
• Decide which phase of learning you feel each
performer is in. Be able to justify your
answers. You will see each video clip twice
Using examples, describe the characteristics of a
performer in the autonomous phase of learning. (3
How would a performer in this stage or learning differ
to one in the cognitive phase?
(3 marks)
Can you....
Demonstrate that you can
apply these principles to a
practical situation?
Identify each stage of learning and
identify characteristics of each
Learning and
Recap on the different stages
of learning and understand
their relevance in sport
Understand the different types
relevance at different stages of
Understand the different types
of feedback and how they
differ between the different
stages of learning
Recapping on previous knowledge
Look at the following worksheet, match up the
correct statements with the correct phases of
Introduction of New Knowledge
Try to guess the different types of feedback
If you get stuck, then use page 113 of your text
Positive Feedback
Terminal Feedback
Negative Feedback
Concurrent Feedback
Knowledge Results/Performance
This is information received by the sensory system within the muscles,
tendons and ligaments.
These sense organs known as proprioceptors feed information to the brain
about the changing state of tension or length of muscles, tendons and
ligaments and we then acquire our sense of movement and the position of
our limbs and the whole body
Is the information the performer receives from outside themselves.
This can come from a coach or teacher, teammates or spectators in the form
of verbal comments about their performance or by showing them what they
did right or wrong
Positive Feedback
Occurs when the skill is performed correctly and is given in the form of
Is designed to reinforce and motivate so the learner will repeat the action in
the future.
Often used with beginners even if only a small improvement has been made
Negative Feedback
Used when an action was incorrect or unsuccessful
Is generally extrinsic and is in the form of comments from the coach.
The more experienced confident or motivated the performer, the more
negative feedback may be used
Terminal Feedback
Feedback given at the end of a performance. This form of feedback may be
DELAYED: The coach waits for some time after the performance.
Allows the performer to reflect, calm down after a long period of high
emotion. Should not be delayed too long as it may be hard for the performer
to recall what they did.
Can be intrinsic or extrinsic
Concurrent Feedback
Feedback received during the performance.
Most often internal feedback from the proprioceptors, but can also be from a
coach as the performer is undertaking the performance (intrinsic/extrinsic)
Knowledge of Results
Knowing what you have done in terms of the outcome. Did you score, was
the stroke accurate, did you jump the longest.
KR is about whether you achieved the task
External feedback gained via our senses or given by others
Knowledge of Performance
Information given as feedback as to how well the movement was performed
regardless of the end of the result. How close to the perfect model were you?
Involves information about the movement outcome rather than the outcome
It can be internal or provided by the coach
Bounce a ball on the edge of your hand. Count the number of consecutive
bounces gained in 1 minute.
Work in coach/learner pairs, each coach should be assigned a different type
of feedback to use
How valuable was the type of feedback you received?
Would you have liked to receive more than one type of feedback?
Fitts & Posner (1967) identified three
phases of learning
Expert Phase
Intermediate Phase
Copy diagram on
page 114 fig 9.12
Beginners Phase
Can you....