Morgan Schreiber November 26, 2012 3rd Chapter 14 Outline and

Morgan Schreiber
November 26, 2012
Chapter 14 Outline and Notes
Chapter 14 Looking to the West Section 1 moving west
 After the civil war people settled from the Mississippi to the Cali coast.
 The settlers of the American west had many reasons to move west because of
destruction or just wanting to get out.
 Push-pull factors- when scholars study the reasons for major migrations.
 Push factors:
 Displaced thousands of farmers
 Former slaves
 Farmland was increasingly costly
 Failed entrepreneurs looked for a second chance
 Ethnic and religious repression
 Europeans to seek freedom in the West
 Pull factors:
 Pacific Railway act of 1862-1864- the government gave large land grants
to the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads.
 Morrill Land-Grant Act- it gave state governments millions of acres of
western lands, which the states could then sell to raise money for the
creation of “land grant” colleges specializing in agriculture and
mechanical arts.
 Land speculators- people who bought up large areas of land in the hope
of selling it later for a profit.
 Homestead act- the government program that really set the wagons
rolling west signed by president Lincoln in 1862.
 Pull Factor: Private Property
 People moved because of the Homestead Act and state and local laws
helped to limit settlers’ risk. It also avoided a total free for all.
 Miners, cattle ranchers, and farmers all received certain right to land and
 Settling far and wide
 Cheap land and new jobs brought ppl from other countries to the west.
 European immigrants arrived in the middle 1800s.
 Irish Italians, European Jews, and Chinese tended to settle w/ there own
Chapter 14 section 2
The life of the plains Indians
 Great plains the vast grassland between the Mississippi River and the Rock MT
 Buffalos provided plain Indians: meet hides for shelters and clothing and a wealth
of other uses
Morgan Schreiber
November 26, 2012
Chapter 14 Outline and Notes
 Horse’ hooves thunder across the plains by the mid-1700s
 Nomads- these are people who travel from place to place usual following
available food sources instead of living in one place.
 The arrival of the horse also brought warfare among Indian tribes.
 They tried to gains possessions or for conquest rose to a new intensity when
waged on horseback.
Indian Wars and government Policy
 Before the civil war the Native Americans west of the Mississippi continued to
inhabit their traditional homelands.
 Settler’s views of land and resource use contrasted sharply w/ NA traditions.
 Reservations-federal land set aside for the Indians
 He treaties produced misunderstandings and outright fraud.
 The fed bureau of Indian affairs supposed to manage the delivery of critical
supplies to the reservations.
Battlefield challenges
 Federal lawmakers came to view the treaties as useless.
 The war dragged for three plus decades
 The U.S. Army spread across the south to monitor reconstruction.
 Native Americans and the army met in battles throughout the interior west.
 The southern Cheyenne occupied the central plains including parts of Co.
 The Sioux of the northern plains Dakota and Wyoming and Montana Sioux
 Chief red cloud
 Sioux land protected by treaty
 The Gov. offered to buy the land
 Under stress for a half century native Americans saw the rise of religious prophets
 The ghost dance caught on among the Teton Sioux who still struggling to adjust
to reservation life
 Hoping to clam the crisis
 While many whit s called for the destruction of native Americans
 As sincere as the reformations may have been most believed that Native
Americans still needed to be civilize
 For the some 55 Indian nations that had been forced to territory’s it got worse
 Boomer had staked claims on almost 2 million Acers sooners people who had
sneaked past the go.
Chapter 14 Section 3
 Along with the armies of Custer and Sherman came virtual armies of miner’s
ranchers and farmers.
Morgan Schreiber
November 26, 2012
Chapter 14 Outline and Notes
After the stunning discovery of gold at shutters mill Cali a surge of fortune
hunters came
Rumors of gold at pikes peak Colorado
A gold strike west of the town of Denver, in what was then Kansas territory
At first miners search for surface metal in soil or streambeds. Placer mining a
Spanish technique
These methods could be seed by individuals or families.
The easily gathered precious metal was skimmed off quickly
The large deep veins of ore attracted the money and sophisticated technologies of
large corporations.
Mexicans taught Americans cattle ranching the Americans also adopted Mexican
ranching equipment and dress
Several chances launched the West’s legendary cattle industry.
Shipping the live cows to the East by rail was expensive
Widespread cattle ranching became possible with the removal of Native
Americans and the near-extinction of buffalo
In the year of abeles founding cowboys drove some 35,000 cattle up the Chisholm
Trail. The Chisholm Trail was one of several rails that linked the good grazing
lands of Texas’s San Antonio region w/ cow towns to the north.
The first order of business for a homesteader was building a home
Soddie- or sod home was a structure with the walls and food made from blocks of
Then there were the bugs grasshoppers locusts and boll weevils ravaged fields of
wheat rye sorghum and corn that would eat the crops
Among the families who stayed most husbands and wives had fairly well defined
In general men did the sodbusting often walking miles to borrow a neighbor’s ox
or plow
In most families women raised and schooled kids cooked cleaned and made
clothes and washed them
Although most homesteaders went west as family’s women could file claims on
their own.
Dry farming- in response farmers practiced water conservation techniques.
Farmers welcomed any machines tat would save time and effort
Knowledge of farming techniques improved during this period as well
Bonanza farms- operations controlled by large businesses managed by pros
Morgan Schreiber
November 26, 2012
Chapter 14 Outline and Notes
 Turner thesis as his view came to be called his theory of frontier life did not
include the contributions of women and of various ethnic groups stereotypes
exaggerated or oversimplified descriptions of reality.
Chapter 14 section 4
 American farmers have always struggled against nature and economy
 Indebted farmers found themselves in an increasingly dangerous position as
competition from abroad increased
 The American economy rested on shaky ground in post civil war era
 Historically the federal government rarely had intervened to stabilize the nation’s
 Americans in the late 1800s were divided on the benefit of tariffs.
 However tariffs hurt most farmers in two ways
 First they raised the prices
 Second us tariffs on manufactured goods spurred
 Money supply- the amount of money in the national economy
 Deflation or a drop in the prices
 Monetary policy the federal Gov. plan for the makeup and quantity of the nation’s
 The year of the worst economic panic in the U.S. history to the point of supporters
of tight money
 Bimetallic standard us currency is based of this
 Free silver the unlimited coining of silver dollars to increase the money supply
 Bland Allison act for the silversides a step in the right direction this act required
the federal government to purchase and coin more silver
 Sherman silver purchase act authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver
that silversides wanted it increased the amount of silver the government was
required to purchase every month
 In 1866 the Department of Agriculture sent Oliver H. Kelley on an inspection tour
of southern farms
 Political power and influence were splintered during this period.
 Interstate commerce act it regulated the prices that railroads charge to move
freight between states.
 Populists as followers of the new party were known built their platform around
the following issues
o An increased circulation of money
o The unlimited minting of silver
o A progressive income tax
o Gov. ownership of communications
Morgan Schreiber
November 26, 2012
Chapter 14 Outline and Notes
An ongoing economic depression colored the 1896 presidential campaign
Cross of gold speech is on of the most famous in American history
The 1896 campaign was one of marked contrasts.
Morgan Schreiber
November 26, 2012
Chapter 14 Outline and Notes
1. Pacific railway acts-laws passed in 1862 and 1864 giving large land grants to the
union pacific and central pacific railroads.
2. Exoduses- An African American who migrated to the West after the Civil war
3. Reservation- federal land set aside for Native Americans.
4. Battle of Little Bighorn- 1876 Sioux victory over army troops led by George
5. Long driver- moving of cattle from distant ranges to busy railroad centers at
shipped the cattle to market.
6. Soddie- a sod home with walls and roof made from blocks of sod strips of grass
with the thick roots and earth attached.
7. Bonanza farm- farm controlled by large businesses managed by professionals and
raising massive quantities of single cash crops
8. Free silver- the unlimited coining of silver dollars
9. The Grange- Established in 1867 and also known as the patrons of husbandry this
organization helped farmers from cooperatives and pressured state legislators to
regulate businesses on which farmers depended
10. Interstate commerce act- 1887 law passed t regulate railroad and other interstate
11. The United states government got people to go to the west by using push-pull
factors most of these were true anyway some of them were the civil war had
displaced thousands of farmers and it was a chance to start over. Also former
slaves to get new jobs. Land speculators also moved out to the west.
12. It took years to end the Indian wars the Indians fought for there land it was like
the civil war everybody that is fighting for there own land there is passion to get
that land.
13. The mining ranching and farming industries evolve in the West by making the
grand continental rail road and making sure that people moved from bad
situations to the west to get a better home
14. It made the clutter more modernized they introduced new ways of farming and
new ways of doing things such as living in houses. The Indians didn’t like this
very much
15. The populists supported the free silver and mostly everyone else supported gold
16. Populism took hold of the south in the late 1800s because it got them money.
17. Republican McKinley defeats decorate Bryan.
18. That the west was a safe working environment for everyone to live in and lots of
gold to be shared.
19. The settlers won’t leave the Native Americans alone to do what they wanted and
always got onto the property and then started fight and all sorts of other stuff
20. The federal government didn’t do much with the native Americans they game a
place to call there home and then settlers wanted to take that part over then it
started fights.
21. Lieutenant colonel George Armstrong Custer was the person who started the
railroad from the east to the west chief joseph of the net Perce the Native
American land that got taken by lieutenant colonel gorge Armstrong Custer. The
Morgan Schreiber
November 26, 2012
Chapter 14 Outline and Notes
Native American sympathies writer Helen hunt Jackson helped the in deans in
there war. Cattle baron Charles goodnight lead the biggest cattle caravan across
the United States of America