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Lobbying II

What do lobbyists do to lobby members of


Develop relationships & credibility

– Don’t burn bridges

Do research/provide information

– Electoral situation and district preferences

– Policy consequences and ramifications

– Legislative Process

Develop coalitions & temporary allies

Work out compromises

How do lobbyists balance the need to represent their group with the inevitable compromises in lawmaking?

How do interest groups facilitate direct citizen lobbying?

How do interest groups change public opinion?

Changing public opinion

Disseminate research

– Example 1

– Example 2

– Ideological think tanks

Run ads

– For Cap and Trade

– Against Cap and Trade

Simplify the debate in ideological terms


What actually works to affect public opinion?

How is lobbying the executive branch different than lobbying the public or

Congress? How is it the same?

Federal Administrative

Procedures Act (1946)

Applies to all regulatory agencies (FAA, FDA,

EPA, etc.)

Rulemaking procedures are to be transparent

Public can participate in the rulemaking process

When agencies make rules binding on the public or quasi-judicial decisions resolving disputes about rules, they have to follow certain procedures

Lobbying the executive branch

Bring technical opinion and public comment into official administrative policymaking process

Work to get, and with, a sympathetic president (Office of Public Liaison)

When might groups use litigation as a political strategy?

When to turn to litigation?

As an appeals process from the political branches

When lobbying won’t work

When you’ve got the money for it


Generally have to show some injury to be able to bring a suit

Office of Communication of the United

Church of Christ vs. FCC (1965)

Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife (1990)