What do lobbyists do to lobby members of
Develop relationships & credibility
– Don’t burn bridges
Do research/provide information
– Electoral situation and district preferences
– Policy consequences and ramifications
– Legislative Process
Develop coalitions & temporary allies
Work out compromises
How do lobbyists balance the need to represent their group with the inevitable compromises in lawmaking?
How do interest groups facilitate direct citizen lobbying?
How do interest groups change public opinion?
Changing public opinion
– Example 1
– Example 2
– Ideological think tanks
– For Cap and Trade
– Against Cap and Trade
Simplify the debate in ideological terms
What actually works to affect public opinion?
How is lobbying the executive branch different than lobbying the public or
Congress? How is it the same?
Procedures Act (1946)
Applies to all regulatory agencies (FAA, FDA,
Rulemaking procedures are to be transparent
Public can participate in the rulemaking process
When agencies make rules binding on the public or quasi-judicial decisions resolving disputes about rules, they have to follow certain procedures
Lobbying the executive branch
Bring technical opinion and public comment into official administrative policymaking process
Work to get, and with, a sympathetic president (Office of Public Liaison)
When might groups use litigation as a political strategy?
When to turn to litigation?
As an appeals process from the political branches
When lobbying won’t work
When you’ve got the money for it
Generally have to show some injury to be able to bring a suit
Office of Communication of the United
Church of Christ vs. FCC (1965)
Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife (1990)