Chapter 10 Race and Ethnicity Race and Ethnicity Prejudice Discrimination Chapter 10 Race and Ethnicity Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States Global Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the Future Race And Ethnicity Race is a category of people singled out on the basis of physical characteristics. Ethnic group is a collection of people distinguished on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics. Characteristics of Ethnic Groups Unique cultural traits (language, clothing, holidays, religious practices). A sense of community. A feeling of ethnocentrism. Ascribed membership from birth. The tendency to occupy a geographic area. The Changing Meaning of Race Race is defined by perceived skin color; white or nonwhite. Racial purity is assumed to exist. Categories of official racial classifications may create a sense of group membership for people within an arbitrary classification. Theories of Prejudice People who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a goal respond with aggression to others. Highly prejudiced individuals have an authoritarian personality. Prejudice is learned from significant others. (Social learning theory). Four Major Types of Discrimination 1. Isolate discrimination A prejudiced judge giving harsher sentences to African American defendants. 2. Small-group discrimination Small group of white students defacing a professor’s office with racist epithets. Four Major Types of Discrimination 3. Direct institutionalized discrimination Intentional exclusion of people of color from public accommodations. 4. Indirect institutionalized discrimination Special education classes may have contributed to racial stereotyping. Contact Hypothesis Contact between divergent groups should be positive as long as group members: 1. Have equal status. 2. Pursue the same goals. 3. Cooperate with one another to achieve goals. 4. Receive positive feedback while interacting. Conflict Perspectives Caste perspective - views racial and ethnic inequality as a permanent feature of U.S. society. Class perspectives - focus on the link between capitalism and racial exploitation. Conflict Perspectives Internal colonialism - Groups that have been subject to colonialism remain in subordinate positions longer than groups that migrated to the United States. Split-Labor-Market Theory -Division of the economy into an upper tier and a lower tier. Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States Native Americans White Anglo-Saxon Protestants African Americans White Ethnic Americans Asian Americans Latinos/as Middle Eastern Americans Native Americans Most disadvantaged group in the U.S. in terms of income, employment, housing, and nutrition. As a group they have experienced: – Genocide – Forced Migration – Forced Assimilation African Americans Slavery was rationalized by stereotyping African Americans as inferior and childlike. Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1965 sought to eliminate discrimination in education, housing, employment and health care. Asian Americans Fastest growing ethnic minority in the U.S. Includes Japanese, Korean, Filipino and Indochinese Americans. Latinos/as (Hispanic Americans) Includes Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans. Many Mexican American families have lived in the U.S. for 4 or 5 generations and have made significant contributions. In 1917, Puerto Ricans acquired U.S. citizenship and the right to move freely to and from the mainland. Middle Eastern Americans Includes immigrants from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, and Jordan. The Lebanese, Syrians, and Iranians primarily come from middle class backgrounds. Most Iranian immigrants initially hoped to return to Iran; however, many have become U.S. citizens. Growing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the United States In 1980 white Americans made up 80% of the population. In 2000, white Americans made up 70% of the population. By 2056, the roots of the average U.S. resident will be in Africa, Asia, Hispanic countries, the Pacific Islands, or Arabia—not white Europe.