Gothic Literature Background • Originated in the 18th century • Genre is devoted to tales of horror and dark supernatural forces • Gothic literature was a reaction to social upheaval in Britain due to economic and political problems. Gothic Literature addresses • What it means to be a human being • The outsider/outcast: the “other” – punished for being different • Injustice – reactions to inequality • Class relations • Element of uncertainty Components of Gothic Lit. • The Double: A 2nd or alternate identity – Represents opposing forces in human nature – Suggests that humans have a dual nature • Forbidden knowledge or forbidden power – Hero attempts to control supernatural powers – Ambition leads to Hero’s fall Components of Gothic Lit. • Castles – Reflect the hero’s psychological character – scary/haunting feeling • Mystery – Lack of identity and nameless individuals give a mysterious feel to cover truths Components of Gothic Lit. • Dreams and Visions – Reveal hidden truths of the unconscious mind • Graveyards/Churches/Ruins – Suggest human confrontation with infinite forces (no boundaries or limits) • Madness – Reflects realities beyond rational comprehension – Mad characters speak the truths that we wish to deny! Importance of Setting • The setting is greatly influential in Gothic novels. It not only evokes the atmosphere of horror and dread, but also portrays the deterioration of its world. The decaying, ruined scenery implies that at one time there was a thriving world. Setting Elements • A castle, ruined or intact, haunted or not • Ruined buildings which are sinister or a pleasing melancholy • Metonymy: something is used to stand for something else – Extreme landscapes, like mountains, thick forests, fog and extreme weather. What is mood? How the READER feels when reading the text. Different Moods You Feel When You Read Positive Moods Passionate Negative Enraged Pensive Amused Rejuvenated Moods Exhausted Pessimistic Calm Relaxed Aggravated Foreboding Scared Content Satisfied Annoyed Gloomy Serious Anxious Hopeless Sick Brooding Indifferent Stressed Cold Irate Suspenseful Confused Jealous Tense Cranky Lonely Terrifying Dreamy Sentimental Ecstatic Surprised Excited Sympathetic Exhilarated Touched Hopeful Vivacious Cynical Morose Violent Loving Warm Depressed Nervous Worried Mellow Welcoming Disappointed Numb Dreary Overwhelmed Optimistic Let’s Practice • “Annabel Lee” by Edgar Allen Poe • http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/annabellee/ It was many and many a year ago. In a kingdom by the sea. That maiden there lived whom you may know By the name of Annabel Lee;And this maiden she lived with no other thought Than to love and be loved by me. Atmosphere (mood) I was a child and she was a child, In this kingdom by the sea, But we loved with a love that was more than love– 1st person point of view I and my Annabel Lee— With a love that the winged seraphs of Heaven Coveted her and me. Repetition The Notebook Scene Rhyme Scheme & Repetition And this was the reason that, long ago, In this kingdom by the sea, A wind blew out of a cloud by night Chilling my Annabel Lee; So that her highborn kinsmen came And bore her away from me, To shut her up in a sepulchre In this kingdom by the sea. The angels, not half so happy in Heaven, Went envying her and me-Yes! that was the reason (as all men know, In this kingdom by the sea) That the wind came out of the cloud, chilling And killing my Annabel Lee. Consonance: repetition of similar consonant sounds Mood But our love it was stronger by far than the love Of those who were older than we— Of many far wiser than we— I m a g e r y And neither the angels in Heaven above Nor the demons down under the sea, Can ever dissever my soul from the soul Of the beautiful Annabel Lee-- Assonance S y m b o l i s m Repetitive vowel sounds For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And the stars never rise but I see the bright eyes Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side Of my darling, my darling, my life and my bride, In her sepulchre there by the sea— In her tomb by the side of the sea. Quote example from poem Analysis of that example (Have you made a connection to a picture that is painted for EVERY word) And the stars never “sepulcher” is a crypt--rise but I see the shows what it means to be bright eyes human and the cycle of life. Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; Repetition of “Lee,” “me” And so, all the and “sea” reiterates and night-tide, I lie repeats his emotions of down by the side sorrow and loss of his love. Of my darling, my darling, my life and “Stars never rise” connects my bride, to his motivation to live In her sepulcher without “my life” and “my there by the sea— bride” In her tomb by the side of the sea What is the mood generated by your quote? (Name it!) How does the quote connect to the mood? (If it doesn’t connect, YOU CAN’T USE IT!) The mood generated by this quote is BLEAK and MELANCHOLY. The mood is cold and bitter and seems to suggest that the individual telling the story is willfully tortured. This willful torture is best displayed in the last stanza when it is revealed that he sleeps in Annabel Lee's tomb. Now let’s make a connection… • Based on the analysis of the poem and the mood, how does this connect to the historical context of the time period and gothic literature? Connection: • Mystery: The narrator is nameless with a lack of identity and is a mysterious figure in the poem. There is a mystery of how Annabel died and if the narrator played a role in the death. • Castle: “A kingdom by the sea” refers to a castle. This signifies a haunting feeling to propel the plot. The castle affects the narrator and his emotions as a reminder of his love for her.