MORALITY Kohlberg vs. Gilligan By: Kayla Watt and Monica Rindone Lawrence Kohlberg Born in 1927 and died in 1987. He grew up in Bronxville, New York and attended Andover Academy in Massachusetts. Eventually he went to college at the University of Chicago for a degree in clinical psychology. It is interesting to note that he had a strong interest in Piaget’s work with regard to children and adolescent moral issues. With a main focus on moral development, his theories of moral thinking go beyond any initial work of Piaget’s. ~Kohlberg’s Theories of Moral Development~ 1St Stage: Pre Conventional 2nd Stage: Conventional Obedience and Punishment Orientation Individualism and Exchange Good Interpersonal Relationships Social Order 3rd Stage: Post Conventional Social Contract and Individual Rights Universal Principles Pre Conventional Morality… First Sub stage: The child unquestionably obeys the rules and regulations set before him or her handed down from an authority. “ I don’t jump on the bed because Mommy said not to” Second Stage: There are “individual” viewpoints and arguments to what is acceptable to do in exchange of obeying the laws. Flexibility is one way of looking at this stage. Third Stage: ~Believe that people’s priorities lie within behaving and doing what is best for their family and other close relationships - “Daddy had to steal the medicine because Mommy was dying.” Fourth Stage: The main goal within this stage is to morally act in ways that are best for society as a whole (or the common good). “I will share my new ball so that we can ALL have fun with it.” Fifth Stage: • This stage is very similar to the fourth in that the main goal is to strive for what is best for society as a whole. Stage five respondents emphasize that one’s rights come before laws. “Heinz should steal the drug to save his wife from dying” Audrey, age 11 Sixth Stage: Those within this stage profess that laws are only acceptable when they are considered just. In other words, laws can be broken if they are unjust. “The druggist was being unfair in his pricing so Heinz's actions were just” Carol Gilligan Carol Gilligan was born on November 28, 1936, in New York City. Her father was a lawyer and her mother was a nursery school teacher. While in college she also practiced modern dance and piano. She earned her bachelor’s degree in English Literature at Swarthmore College, her master’s in clinical psychology at Radcliffe College, then her Ph.D in Social Psychology at Harvard University. On Kohlberg Said Kohlberg’s study was biased against women There is more than one type of morality. Justice based Care based Did own morality study on only women Comes up with her own stages of development What is Morality Morality is a Dilemma: “the conflict between compassion and autonomy, between virtue and power—which the feminine voice struggles to resolve in its effort to reclaim the self and to solve the moral problem in such a way that no one is hurt.” (Gilligan 71) Preconventional • priority is your own individual survival and happiness • you may help someone, but only as long as there is a benefit in it for you • . “The Concern is pragmatic and the issue is survival. The woman focuses on taking care of herself because she feels that she is all alone” (Gilligan, 75) Preconventional “ ‘I think survival is one of the first things in life that people fight for. I think it is the most important thing, more important than stealing. Stealing might be wrong, but if you have to steal to survive, or even kill, that is what you should do…It comes before anything else.’ ” (Gilligan 76) Conventional a movement from care for self to others Values self-sacrifice as the highest good The focus rests more on society and in the significance of relationships with others Conventional ► “Whereas from the first perspective, morality is a matter of sanctions imposed by a society of which one is more subject than citizen, from the second perspective, moral judgment relies on shared norms and expectations” (Gilligan, 79) Postconventional marked by a shift in concern from goodness to truth “wonders if it is possible to be responsible to herself as well as others and thus to reconcile the disparity between hurt and care” (Gilligan, 82). Postconventional “ ‘I am basing a lot of it on my ability to do the things that I feel are right and best for me and whomever I am involved with….and I really think that I have been truthful….it is a good decision and an honest one, a real decision’ ” (Gilligan 8485) Heinz Dilemma • In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. the drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $400 for the radium and charged $4,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could only get together about $2,000, which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying, and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So, having tried every legal means, Heinz gets desperate and considers breaking into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife. Sample Questions Should Heinz steal the drug? Should Heinz steal it for a stranger? Should Heinz steal the drug for a pet animal? What is the most responsible thing for Heinz to do? Should Heinz Steal the Drug? “He should because he loves his wife and doesn’t want her to die, and the man wasn’t being fair “No, I believe that he should have faith in God to heal his wife” Sarah, 11 Arielle, 12 “Regardless of what happens to him, he is still going to end up with her in heaven :D” Nikolas, 12 Should he steal it for a stranger? “NO! If it is a stranger he has no business stealing for a stranger he doesn’t know or love that well” Madison, 11 “Yes, he should because the stranger is a living human being” Carlos, 11 Should He Steal it for an Animal? “Depends on the animal of choice” “No, an animal is an animal” Nikolas, 12 Katie, 12 It depends if it was a fish no way don’t risk it if it was a dog maybe if you really love it, if it is a horse, lion, elephant, etc, steal it but pay the druggist at a later time” Antonio, 12 What is the Most Responsible thing to do? “To steal, because he needs to save his wife” “Hire a lawyer, don’t go to jail” Carlos, 11 Katie, 11 “Sell some possessions and buy the drug or go ahead and steal it, it depends, not all things have such meaning” Nikolas, 12 Camp Dilemma • Joe is a fourteen-year-old boy who wanted to go to camp very much. His father promised him he could go if he saved up the money for it himself. So Joe worked hard at his paper route and saved up the forty dollars it cost to go to camp, and a little more besides. But just before camp was going to start, his father changed his mind. Some of his friends decided to go on a special fishing trip, and Joe's father was short of the money it would cost. So he told Joe to give him the money he had saved from the paper route. Joe didn't want to give up going to camp, so he thinks of refusing to give his father the money. Sample Questions Should Joe refuse to give his father the money? Does Joe’s father have the right to ask? Is it important to keep a promise to someone you will never see again? What should Joe do? Should Joe refuse to give his father the money? • • • • “Yes, it is Joe’s money, not his Dad’s…” “Yes because he promised!” “Yes, because it is his father…” “I think Joe should talk to his father about maybe his friends going fishing another day or his father could go with Joe when he come back from camp…” Does Joe’s father have the right to ask? “The father has authority to take Joe’s money, but taking away after his promise does not give him a right to take Joe’s hardearned money…” “Yes, because you must respect your parents…” “No, he promised!!” Is it important to keep a promise to someone you will never see again? “I understand that sometimes you are unable to keep that promise but if you are able to, you should” “A promise is a promise” Arielle, 12 Nikolas, age 12 “Yes, because you could see them again in the after life” Tim, age 11 What should Joe do? “tell his dad no, he worked hard” Katie, 12 “I think neither of them should go, I think they both can go camping and fishing” Antonio, 12 “the most responsible thing to do is give the dad the $40 and keep the extra money Madison, 11 EXTRA: Are There Any Laws That are Bad? “no” –five students “yes” –two students “I don’t know” –one student “There is an unlikely chance there is a bad law” –one student Two left blank So… Do girls and boys have opposing views on morality? And At what age do these differences become most apparent? How Did We Go About Finding the Answers to These Questions…? • Kohlberg’s original study was with 72 upper and middle class boys of the ages 10, 13, and 16 along with 12 delinquent boys. After creating 8 dilemmas, he posed questions from them for the boys and the results became part of his 1958 Dissertation. • We decided to use two of his dilemmas and created a series of questions from them. However, we used both boys and girls and compared our results to Kohlberg’s. Our Hypothesis: We predict that there are in fact differences in moral views among boys versus girls. However, we also predict that as they grow older, closer to puberty, these opposing view points will be more drastically evident. VERY IMPORTANT TERMS: Justice- knowing what is right, what one aught to do. (based on rationality) Care- a sensitivity that you can affect someone else’s life. Pre conventional Stage- the children are morally based on authority, punishment, and reward Conventional Stage- which is based on social norms and expectations Post Conventional- where kids are moral for the sake of the common good. Authority- The highest status and respect level that one follows for a set of particular reasons. Kohlberg’s Rubric Kohlberg’s Rubric’s Our Data- Heinz Dilemma Name Sex Age Steal? Value Role Choice Rule Justice Average Katie girl 12yr4mo no 0 0 0 Marissa girl 12yr1mo yes 1 3 1 Audrey girl 11yr6mo yes 1 3 Sarah girl 11yr11m yes/no 1 Tim boy 11yr10m no Nikolas boy 12yr4mo Antonio 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 4 3 0 4 yes 3 2 1 2 2 2 boy 12 yes 3 1 2 5 2 3 Jamison boy 11 yes 3 1 4 0 3 2 Carlos boy 11 yes 1 2 3 5 5 3 Madison girl 11 yes 3 3 4 5 5 4 Arielle 12 no 0 0 0 3 3 1 3 Data continued- Camp Dilemma Name Refuse? Value Katie yes 2 4 1 3 2 2 Marissa yes 2 4 2 3 3 3 Audrey yes 2 3 1 3 2 2 Sarah no 2 2 0 3 1 2 Tim no 1 1 0 1 2 1 Nikolas yes 2 4 1 3 4 3 Antonio yes 2 2 2 1 2 2 Jamison yes 4 4 4 4 3 4 Carlos yes 0 0 0 1 1 0 Madison yes 2 3 3 2 2 2 Arielle 4 4 4 4 3 4 no Role Authority Justice Promise Average Some of Our Results Name Katie Marissa Audrey Sarah Madison Tim Nikolas Antonio Jamison Gender girl girl girl girl girl boy boy boy boy Carlos Arielle boy girl Age 12yr4mo 12yr1mo 11yr6mo 11yr11mo 11 11yr10mo 12yr4mo 12 11 Score 0,2 1,3 2,2 1,2 4,2 3,1 2,3 3,2 2,4 11 3,0 12 1,4 Kohlberg's Levels Gilligans Levels 2 3 3 2 4 3 3 3 4 Preconventional Conventional Conventional Conventional Conventional Preconventional Preconventional Conventional Conventional Preconventional Conventional Conventional Preconventional Conventional Conventional Conventional Conventional Conventional 4 Conventional 3 Conventional Conventional Preconventional To answer our questions… Our results did not show any patterns that distinguished the girls from the boys on these moral issues. There are no gender differences at the age we studied but may still become apparent at later ages we did not study. Our Conclusion: Our hypothesis was that as students approached puberty the gender differences would begin to become apparent. What we saw instead was that Kohlberg’s study may have been biased toward the justice-oriented, but not necessarily towards men. Of the four students who scored differently when judged by Kohlberg and Gilligan, only one of those was a girl and she actually scored lower on Gilligan’s scale. Gilligan showed that there is more than one idea of morality and that Kohlberg’s analysis was incomplete. However, her suggestion that men are more inclined one way and women to another is also gender biased. ► Limitations of Our Study Our Study was limited in ways that were usually unavoidable. It was only a small project and we only had a small number of subjects that were studied. Kohlberg interviewed nearly a hundred boys to reach his conclusions on morality and we only interviewed eleven sixth graders. Our questioning was thorough for each dilemma and we were able to score. Limitations The students had difficulty answering the questions because they were able to see both sides of each situation. Although they were required to pick either yes or no for each question their indecisive explanations often made it even more difficult for us to score. Many of the questions seemed repetitive for the students and they simply repeated the answers over and over again.