The Continuity and Change Over Time (CCOT) Essay About the CCOT • The student must show what has changed and what has remained continuous from the beginning to the end of the time period given. • The important element is WHY things did or did not change. • Time allotted for this essay is 40 minutes (5-10 of which should be spent planning/outlining). • If possible, ALWAYS pick the nonwestern regions. CCOT Prompts Find the Phrase 2005 CCOT • Analyze the social and economic transformations that occurred in the Atlantic world as a result of new contacts among Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas from 1492 to 1750. 2008 CCOT • Analyze the changes and continuities in commerce in the Indian Ocean region from 650 CE – 1750 CE. 2009 CCOT • Analyze the continuities and changes in patterns of interactions along the Silk Roads from 200 BCE to 1450 CE. 2010 CCOT • Describe and explain continuities and changes in religious beliefs and practices in ONE of the following regions from 1450 to the present. • Sub-Saharan Africa • Latin America/Caribbean 2006 CCOT Analyze the social, cultural and political changes and continuities in ONE of the following civilizations. China (100 CE – 600 CE) India (300 CE – 600 CE) 2006 CCOT Brainstorm: India, 300 CE - 600 CE • • • • • Changes Continuities Gupta Empire (320-550 CE) using regional divisions, stable and • Continued patriarchy prosperous initially • Continued strength of Hinduism Collapse: invasions of White • Continued caste system Huns, 5th-6th c.; regional kingdoms split from empire Golden Age: Gupta emperors supported Hinduism, math and science Gradual decline of Buddhism in India, spread beyond India into Southeast Asia Because of Buddhism and trade, India’s influence extends to SE Asia 2006 CCOT Brainstorm: China, 100 CE - 600 CE • • • • • • • Changes Han Empire, 206 BCE-220 CEcentralization, bureaucracy Fell due to internal problems (disagreements at court, corruption) Fell due to external problems (conflicts with Hun invasions) 220-589: 3 Kingdoms Period, regional kingdoms, warlords, disorder 589-618-Sui dynasty Buddhism slowly becomes more popular, coming in on Silk Road Examination system is halted after collapse of Han Continuities • Daoism continued • Confucianism continued • Continued patriarchy, filial piety, veneration of ancestors • Continued expansion of Great wall Tips for a CCOT • The continuities must be substantial, not obvious (Germans remained Germans), nor can change be continuous. • A continuity must occur EVERY YEAR during the time period given. • Provide solid chronological knowledge across the entire time period • Include dates to demonstrate the ability to describe with some precision when continuity and change happen • Use the phrase throughout your paper! Thesis • Acceptable thesis statements need to address both change and continuity, with at least one of each. • Need to be explicit, not restatements of the prompt or vague statements, such as “there were more changes than continuities.” • Thesis Musts • One sentence • Address Prompt • Place/Time • 3 Categories/Groups (1 Continuity and 2 Changes / 2 Continuities and 1 Change) • Do not use phrase in thesis How to Construct the Thesis • “From (this date) to (that date), (X) showed changes in (A), yet showed consistency in (B) and (C).” • “From (this date) to (that date), (X) showed consistency in (A), but showed changes in (B) and (C).” • “Even though (A) showed changes in (this place) at (this time), (B) and (C) continued to happen.” • “Even though (A) remained the same in (this place) at (this time), (B) and (C) changed.” Sample Thesis 2012: Analyze continuities and changes in trade networks between Africa and Eurasia from circa 300 CE to 1450 CE. “From (this date) to (that date), (X) showed consistency in (A), but showed changes in (B) and (C).” From 300 CE to 1450 CE,,trade relations between Africa and Eurasia showed consistency in the basic types of exports and imports, but also showed changes in the arrival of Islamic traders and Islam,, and the rise of new and powerful empires in Eurasia. • Introduction – Thesis Sentence • Paragraph 1 – Group 1 • Topic Sentence with phrase • World Historical Context (Background) • Evidence • Analysis • Paragraph 2 – Group 2 • Topic Sentence with phrase • World Historical Context (Background) • Evidence • Analysis • Paragraph 3 – Group 3 • Topic Sentence with phrase • World Historical Context (Background) • Evidence • Analysis The Order What Order? Continuity Change Continuity Change Continuity Continuity Continuity Continuity Change Change Change Continuity Continuity Change Change If time is not to your advantage, always organize your essay according to the top AP Rubric & Class Expectations World Historical Context • Provide the surrounding historical events so that the reader understands what is occurring at the time of the changes/continuities. OR • Describes extra-regional connections to explain a continuity OR change in response to the prompt. World Historical Context • Good example: “From 200 BCE to 400 CE, the stability in major empires such as the Romans in Europe, Guptas in India, Hans in China, allowed the Silk Roads to prosper, until disease and nomadic invasions disrupted this peace and the Silk Roads fell into disuse.” • Poor example: “Over a period of time, Silk Roads were responsible for bringing different cultures into contact” • NOT acceptable because it lacks specificity. Analyzing Change or Continuity • Must analyze the reasons for a continuity or change • Why does this particular thing change? What causes that change, and why does that change occur right then and not at some other time? • Why does this particular thing stay the same? Did something prevent change, or is consistency with this thing desired? Analyzing Change or Continuity • If your Change is “Buddhism declined in India,” how would you explain WHY? • Example: “Buddhism’s popularity declined in India during the Classical period as a result of many factors. First, the Guptas promoted Hinduism in a period directly after Buddhist Kushan rule where Buddhism had come to be associated with foreignness. Secondly, Buddhism rejects the idea of the caste system, a social structure which was deeply engrained into Indian society as a result of Aryan and Hindu 2006 CCOT Analyze the social, cultural and political changes and continuities in ONE of the following civilizations. Chinese, 100 CE – 600 CE Indian, 300 CE – 600 CE Do not do extra research (Wikipedia, etc). Utilize your Wood book, notes, and prepbook.