The Continuity and Change Over Time (CCOT) Essay

The Continuity and
Change Over Time
(CCOT) Essay
About the CCOT
• The student must show what has changed and
what has remained continuous from the
beginning to the end of the time period given.
• The important element is WHY things did or did not
• Time allotted for this essay is 40 minutes (5-10 of
which should be spent planning/outlining).
• If possible, ALWAYS pick the nonwestern regions.
CCOT Prompts
Find the Phrase
2005 CCOT
• Analyze the social and
transformations that
occurred in the Atlantic
world as a result of new
contacts among
Western Europe, Africa,
and the Americas from
1492 to 1750.
2008 CCOT
• Analyze the
changes and
continuities in
commerce in the
Indian Ocean
region from 650 CE
– 1750 CE.
2009 CCOT
• Analyze the continuities
and changes in
patterns of interactions
along the Silk Roads
from 200 BCE to 1450
2010 CCOT
• Describe and explain
continuities and
changes in religious
beliefs and practices
in ONE of the following
regions from 1450 to
the present.
• Sub-Saharan Africa
• Latin
2006 CCOT
Analyze the social, cultural and political
changes and continuities in ONE of the
following civilizations.
China (100 CE – 600 CE)
India (300 CE – 600 CE)
2006 CCOT
Brainstorm: India, 300 CE - 600 CE
Gupta Empire (320-550 CE) using
regional divisions, stable and
• Continued patriarchy
prosperous initially
• Continued strength of Hinduism
Collapse: invasions of White
• Continued caste system
Huns, 5th-6th c.; regional
kingdoms split from empire
Golden Age: Gupta emperors
supported Hinduism, math and
Gradual decline of Buddhism in
India, spread beyond India into
Southeast Asia
Because of Buddhism and trade,
India’s influence extends to SE
2006 CCOT
Brainstorm: China, 100 CE - 600 CE
Han Empire, 206 BCE-220 CEcentralization, bureaucracy
Fell due to internal problems
(disagreements at court,
Fell due to external problems
(conflicts with Hun invasions)
220-589: 3 Kingdoms Period,
regional kingdoms, warlords,
589-618-Sui dynasty
Buddhism slowly becomes more
popular, coming in on Silk Road
Examination system is halted
after collapse of Han
• Daoism continued
• Confucianism continued
• Continued patriarchy, filial
piety, veneration of ancestors
• Continued expansion of
Great wall
Tips for a CCOT
• The continuities must be substantial, not
obvious (Germans remained Germans), nor
can change be continuous.
• A continuity must occur EVERY YEAR during
the time period given.
• Provide solid chronological knowledge
across the entire time period
• Include dates to demonstrate the ability to
describe with some precision when
continuity and change happen
• Use the phrase throughout your paper!
• Acceptable thesis statements need to address both
change and continuity, with at least one of each.
• Need to be explicit, not restatements of the prompt or
vague statements, such as “there were more changes than
• Thesis Musts
• One sentence
• Address Prompt
• Place/Time
• 3 Categories/Groups (1 Continuity and 2 Changes / 2
Continuities and 1 Change)
• Do not use phrase in thesis
How to Construct the Thesis
• “From (this date) to (that date), (X) showed changes
in (A), yet showed consistency in (B) and (C).”
• “From (this date) to (that date), (X) showed
consistency in (A), but showed changes in (B) and
• “Even though (A) showed changes in (this place) at
(this time), (B) and (C) continued to happen.”
• “Even though (A) remained the same in (this place) at
(this time), (B) and (C) changed.”
Sample Thesis
2012: Analyze continuities and changes in trade
networks between Africa and Eurasia from circa 300
CE to 1450 CE.
“From (this date) to (that date), (X) showed
consistency in (A), but showed changes in (B) and (C).”
From 300 CE to 1450 CE,,trade relations between
Africa and Eurasia showed consistency in the basic
types of exports and imports, but also showed
changes in the arrival of Islamic traders and Islam,,
and the rise of new and powerful empires in Eurasia.
• Introduction – Thesis Sentence
• Paragraph 1 – Group 1
• Topic Sentence with phrase
• World Historical Context (Background)
• Evidence
• Analysis
• Paragraph 2 – Group 2
• Topic Sentence with phrase
• World Historical Context (Background)
• Evidence
• Analysis
• Paragraph 3 – Group 3
• Topic Sentence with phrase
• World Historical Context (Background)
• Evidence
• Analysis
The Order
What Order?
If time is not to your advantage, always
organize your essay according to the top
AP Rubric
Class Expectations
World Historical Context
Provide the surrounding historical events so that
the reader understands what is occurring at the
time of the changes/continuities.
Describes extra-regional connections to explain
a continuity OR change in response to the
World Historical Context
Good example: “From 200 BCE to 400 CE, the
stability in major empires such as the Romans in
Europe, Guptas in India, Hans in China, allowed
the Silk Roads to prosper, until disease and
nomadic invasions disrupted this peace and the
Silk Roads fell into disuse.”
Poor example: “Over a period of time, Silk Roads
were responsible for bringing different cultures
into contact”
• NOT acceptable because it lacks specificity.
Analyzing Change or Continuity
Must analyze the reasons for a continuity or
Why does this particular thing change? What
causes that change, and why does that
change occur right then and not at some
other time?
Why does this particular thing stay the same?
Did something prevent change, or is
consistency with this thing desired?
Analyzing Change or Continuity
If your Change is “Buddhism declined in India,”
how would you explain WHY?
Example: “Buddhism’s popularity declined in
India during the Classical period as a result of
many factors. First, the Guptas promoted
Hinduism in a period directly after Buddhist
Kushan rule where Buddhism had come to be
associated with foreignness. Secondly, Buddhism
rejects the idea of the caste system, a social
structure which was deeply engrained into
Indian society as a result of Aryan and Hindu
2006 CCOT
Analyze the social, cultural and political
changes and continuities in ONE of the
following civilizations.
Chinese, 100 CE – 600 CE
Indian, 300 CE – 600 CE
Do not do extra research (Wikipedia, etc). Utilize
your Wood book, notes, and prepbook.