Continuity and Change over Time (CCOT)

Continuity and Change over Time
An Introduction to the free response essay format
What is the Continuity and Change over Time essay?
 Meant to see whether you can analyze how regions have changed and
stayed the same
 Continuity = Stayed the same
i.e. The Mandate of Heaven was used in China from 1000bce -1917ce
 Most often assesses changes and continuities in:
 Technology
 Trade
 Culture
 Migrations
 Environment
 Requires you to explain how/why things happened the way they did.
 Follows a very similar pattern as comparative essay
 Grading rubric is VERY similar
 Thesis and body structure almost identical
 Reputation for the hardest of the three essays
Continuity and Change over Time Essay
Generic Core-Scoring for AP World History
Basic Core
1. Has acceptable thesis.
(Addresses the global issues
and the time period(s) specified.)
2. Addresses all parts of the
question, though not necessarily
evenly or thoroughly.
(Addresses most parts of the
question: for example, addresses
change but not continuity.)
3. Substantiates thesis with
appropriate historical evidence.
(Partially substantiates thesis
with appropriate historical
Expanded Core
4. Uses relevant world historical
context effectively to explain
continuity and change over time.
5. Analyzes the process of
continuity and change over time.
Expands beyond basic core of 1-7
The basic core score of 7 must be achieved
before a student can earn expanded core points.
• Has a clear, analytical, and comprehensive
• Analyzes all issues of the question (as
relevant): global context, chronology,
causation, change, continuity, effects,
• Provides ample historical evidence to
substantiate thesis.
• Provides links with relevant ideas, events,
trends in an innovative way.
0-2 points
Total 9
 Do not list events as “snapshots” in time
 Instead show how these events flowed into one another (movie vs. snapshot!)
 Indicate change by using clear transition words:
 “Over time changes in…..”
 “As political structures evolved…,”
 “Subtle changes in social structure developed…”
 “Gradually over time changes in economic…….
 “Eventually, over time, the role of the priest changed to …
 During the 17th Century ___ ……
 Indicate continuities by using words like the following:
 Women remained subservient
 The environment continued to play a central role
 Continuous raids from the margin resulted in the decline…..
 Nomadic traditions maintained a strong cultural component….
 The Gupta rulers persistently used regional allies to rule
 New Mesoamerican conquerors such as the Toltecs consistently used many of the
social practices of earlier societies
 Analyze the impact of the change(s) and the continuity (ies)
 Were the changed imposed or welcomed?
 Did the changes strengthen or weaken the society?
 How did the continuity strengthen or weaken the society.
What should I do first?
 Read and UNDERSTAND the question
What should I do first?
 BRAINSTORM – a list of as many key events as possible
 The more you come up with the easier it will be to write!
….Industrial revolution
o Move to freer trade, Europe leader in exports, booming economies
Triangular trade
o Slaves, brought in Africa
Growth in American colonies
o Used as resource source, and place to sell
 ORGANIZE – your info to look for continuities and changes
How should the essay be organized?
 Similar to comparison essay
 Paragraph 1: Intro/Thesis
 Body paragraphs written in one of the following formats:
 Chronological Method:
 Paragraphs 2,3,4 – Discuss beginning, middle, and end of time period
 Paragraph 5 – Continuities throughout all periods
o Easy structure to organize/write
o Easy to mention changes, but omit “motion,”
o No change over time, merely three “snapshots” rather than “motion picture”
that shows how ‘Early’became ‘Middle’ which then became ‘Late.’
o Easy to forget/omit Continuities
How should the essay be organized?
 Topic Method:
 Para 2-5 – Each paragraph focusing on a thematic continuity and change topics
Organizing each paragraph by topic encourages analytical cause-effect
statements within each paragraph. (Why did A cause B?)
Easy to include continuities in each paragraph.
Requires students to know chronological order
 Conclusion (optional, but recommended)
 Restate and summarize your thesis