Social Norm Theory ( Cialdini, Kalgren & Reno, 1990 ) mm-dd-yy | 2 › Injunctive norms: The behavior commonly (dis)approved. (Social) Sanction, Reward › Descriptive norms: The behavior commonly displayed. › Salience is important › Aligned norms are stronger
Project 1 › Promoting Orderly Bike Parking in Groningen
Previous Studies on Parking Problems › 44% Sees inappropriate parking as a problem › 67% Shopping › 64% Park < 30 minutes › 42% Not enough parking spaces
Making the injunctive norm salient Prohibition sign: 37% Prescriptive sign: 60%
Making the injunctive norm salient › How? › Please park your bicycle within the green area
PROPOSED FIELD EXPERIMENT › Method: • Pre and post intervention • Observational › Outcome measures: • % Bikers conforming to parking norm • % Bikers being socially sanctioned
Project 2: Reducing cars driving to city
Car Public Transit Bike Walk > 10km 5-10km < 5km Public Transit PT or bike Bike or walk
Transportation modes for 5-10 km
1% 1% 45% car public transportation bicycle walk other 14%
Social Norms › Theoretical gaps: • Behavior suggestions: 1 vs. 2 alternatives • Norm effectiveness: perception vs. actual
Action Research › 4 conditions (all groups receive information + incentive) • Bike norm info • • • Public transport norm info Bike + PT norm info Control
Action Research › Procedure • Telephone Survey • • Mail packages Outcome measures • Telephone follow up survey • Objective assessment
The message (For people 5-10 km) › Many people believe that using sustainable transportation is the right thing to do. (injunctive) › 53% of people in your neighborhood use a bike or public transportation to go to work everyday.
› Join us in making Groningen the most sustainable city in the Netherlands!
› Please use a bike or public transportation when you go to work.
Expected outcomes › Practical • Decrease car use in city for segmented area › Theoretical hypotheses • Experimental groups will reduce car use more than control • Perception of norm may interact with reported norm
Project 3: The use of norms on testimonials
Purpose of the study: increase preference for the tram
“ Well, I think the tram is a good plan, as long as it will go past Euroborg” “I used the tram in Rio de Janeiro, Brussels, Amsterdam, and a couple of other city's. I really like it”
Which message works best?
› Injunctive: “The tram will be an
appropriate means of
transportation” › Descriptive: 60% of people traveling within Groningen will take the tram
When both norms align tram preference will increase
Which message works best… and for whom?
› Target group: People working in Groningen and living outside of Groningen › Important: Identify with the individual providing the testimonial
Identification with models will increase tram preference
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