Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication “People are more frightened of being lonely than of being hungry, or being deprived of sleep, or of having their sexual needs unfulfilled” (Frieda Fromm Reichmenn). Paralanguage: Communication by means other than language. Paralanguage includes • • • • • • • • Facial expressions Tones of voice Gestures Eye contact Spatial arrangements Patterns of touch Expressive movements Silence Paralanguage: refers to all nonverbal communication actions (Kinesics and Proxemics) Paralanguage includes intentional and unintentional nonverbal messages Paralanguage may be: • Complementary • Unconscious • Learned Universals and Cultural Variations • eyebrow flash, the nose wrinkle • basic emotions: --happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, anger, and surprise The functions of nonverbal communication • • • • To repeat what was said verbally To complement what was said verbally To contradict what was said verbally To substitute for what would be said verbally • To regulate and manage the communication event Nonverbal communication divided into • Kinesic and Proxemic acts • Kinesics: The study of nonverbal gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and body posture • Proxemics: The study of the use of space, touch, and distance as features of nonverbal communication. Inborn Nonverbal Actions • Smiling • Crying Universality versus Relativism • Birdwhistell (1970) • Emblems: are gestures understood by participant of a communicative community to express a specific meaning Cultural Specific Emblems • Can you guess what the following gestures from Japan, France and Iran mean? Could reflect social status and gender: In North America • Dominance versus subordination ---more space---take less space ---stare at others ---less eye contact --- smile more-- smile less Dangers of overgeneralizations • Cannot assume everybody in a culture behaves the same way • Infrequent actions should not be used to characterize a culture • We should not ignore that nonverbal behaviors are part of complex communication processes How do we communicate with those we don’t know? • Leonard Zunin (The First Four Minutes, 1972) Three common behaviours: • Which side of the path” look • I acknowledge you” look • Look—away priority” Proxemics • Edward, T Hall in 1963 • refers to touch and issues of personal space Distance Between Faces very close (3-6 inches) close (8-12 inches) neutral (20-36 inches) Tone of Voice soft whisper audible whisper soft voice, low volume neutral (4.5-5 feet) across the room (8-20 feet) full voice information loud voice stretching the limit Type of Message top secret or sensual very confidential personal subject matter non-personal talking to a group All nonverbal communication is best understood within cultural context • • • • Body movements Eye contact Facial expressions Touch Silence also part of nonverbal communication • Sends nonverbal clues during communication • Culturally determined • Igbos of Nigeria Do you think that by studying nonverbal patterns can help us identify our own ethnocentric attitudes?