Chapter 1 Computer Basics Chapter 5
Algorithms and Programming
Languages
1
Outline
Concepts
– Definition
– How to develop an algorithm
– Essential features
Three Constructs
Algorithm Representation
– Pseudocode
– Flowchart
– Structure chart
Basic algorithms
Recursion
2
Outline
•
•
•
•
Evolution
Categories of languages
Building programs
Elements of programming languages
3
Objectives
• Define algorithms.
• List the 5 essential properties of an algorithm.
• Define and use the three constructs for developing
algorithms: sequence, decision, and repetition.
• Understand and use three tools to represent
algorithms: flowchart, pseudocode, and structure
chart.
• Understand the concept of modularity and
subalgorithms.
• List and comprehend common algorithms, such as
sorting and searching.
• Differentiate between recursion and iteration.
4
Objectives
• Have a vision of computer language evolution.
• Distinguish between machine, assembly, and highlevel languages.
• Distinguish between the different categories of
languages: procedural, object-oriented, functional,
declarative, and special.
• Understand the process of creating and running a
program.
• Become familiar with elements of programming
languages.
5
part 1
DEFINITION
6
Informal definition
7
Example--Finding the largest integer
among five integers
8
Defining actions
9
Refinement
• 2 problems with the previous method:
– The action in the first step is different from the
ones for the other steps.
– The wording is not the same in steps 2 to 5.
10
Generalization
11
Formal definition
• Algorithm: an ordered set of unambiguous steps
that produces a result and terminates in a finite
time.
• It is a step-by-step problem-solving procedure,
especially an established, recursive computational
procedure for solving a problem in a finite number
of steps.
• It is a precise, systematic method for producing a
specified result.
12
Specification
• The specification of an algorithm must be
“precise”.
• To write a precise algorithm, we need to pay
attention to three things:
– Capability. Make sure that the computer knows what
and how to do the operations.
– Language. Ensure that the description is
unambiguous—that is, it can only be read and
understood one way.
– Context. Make few assumptions about the input and
execution setting.
13
5 essential properties of algorithms
• To write algorithms that are specified well
enough for a computer to follow, make sure
every algorithm has five essential properties:
–
–
–
–
–
Inputs specified
Outputs specified
Definiteness
Effectiveness
Finiteness
14
Input specified
• The inputs are the data that will be transformed
during the computation to produce the output.
• We must specify the type of the data, the amount
of data, and the form that the data will take.
• Suppose the algorithm is a recipe. We must list the
ingredients(type of inputs), their
quantities(amount of input), and their preparation,
if any(form of inputs), as in “1/4 cup onion,
minced.”
15
Outputs specified
• The outputs are the data resulting from the
computation, the intended result.
• Often the description is given in the name of the
algorithm, as in “Algorithm to compute a batting
average.”
• As with inputs, we must specify the type, amount,
and any form of the outputs. “3 dozen 3-inch
• A possible output for some computation is a
statement that there can be no output—that is, no
solution is possible.
16
Definiteness
• Algorithms must specify every step.
• Definiteness means specifying the sequence of
operations for transforming the inputs into the
outputs.
• Every detail of each step must be spelled out,
including how to handle errors.
• Definiteness ensures that if the algorithm is
performed at different times or by different agents
(people or computers) using the same data, the
output will be the same.
17
Effectiveness
• It must be possible for the agent to execute the
algorithm mechanically without any further inputs,
special talent, clairvoyance, creativity, help from
Superman, and so on.
• Whereas definiteness specifies which operations
to do, effectiveness means that they are doable.
• Examples of ineffectiveness: “Enter the amount of
worked harder”, “Print the length of the longest
run of 9s in the decimal expansion of π”
18
Finiteness
• An algorithm must have finiteness; it must
eventually stop, either with the right output or
with a statement that no solution is possible.
• If no answer comes back, we can’t tell whether the
algorithm is still working on an answer or is just
plain “stuck”.
• Finiteness becomes an issue for computer
algorithms because if the algorithm doesn’t
specify when to stop the repetition, the computer
will continue to repeat the instructions forever. For
example, divide 3 into 10.
• Any process having these five properties will be
19
called an algorithm.
part 2
3 CONSTRUCTS
20
3 Constructs
• Computer scientists have defined three
constructs for a structured program or
algorithm.
• The idea is that a program must be made up
of a combination of only these three
constructs: sequence, decision (selection),
and repetition.
21
Sequence
• An algorithm, and eventually a program, is
a sequence of instructions, which can be a
simple instruction or either of the other two
constructs.
• A program is an algorithm that has been
customized to solve a specific task under a
specific set of circumstances in a specific
language.
22
Decision
• Some problems can not be solved with only
a sequence of instructions.
• Sometimes you need to test a condition.
• If the result of testing is true, you follow a
sequence of instructions; if it is false, you
follow a different sequence of instructions.
• This is called the decision (selection)
construct.
23
Repetition
• In some problems, the same sequence of
instructions must be repeated.
• You handle this with the repetition (loop)
construct.
24
part 3
Algorithm Representation
25
Algorithm Representation
• We can use different tools to represent
algorithms:
– Pseudo-code
– Flowchart
– Structure chart
26
Pseudocode
• It is an English-like representation of the code
required for an algorithm. It is part English and
part structured code.
– English part provides a relaxed syntax that is easy to
– Code part consists of an extended version of the basic
algorithmic constructs (sequence, decision and
repetition).
• Until now, there is no standard for pseudocode.
27
Pseudocode example
Algorithm: Finding Smallest
Purpose: This algorithm finds the smallest number among a
list of numbers.
Pre: List of numbers
Post: None
Return: The Smallest
1. Set smallest to the first number
2. loop (not end of list)
2.1 if (next number &lt; smallest)
2.1.1 set smallest to next number
2.2 end if
3. end loop
4. Return smallest
End finding Smallest
28
Pseudocode
• An algorithm written in pseudocode can be
decomposed into several elements and constructs.
• Purpose, precondition, postcondition and return:
– The purpose is a short statement about what the
algorithm does;
– The precondition lists any requirements;
– The postcondition identifies any effect created;
– The return shows what is returned from the algorithm.
If there is nothing to be returned, the null should be
specified.
• Statement numbers: list execution order.
• Statement constructs: based on three constructs.
29
Pseudocode
30
Example 1
Write an algorithm in pseudocode that finds
the average of two numbers
Solution
AverageOfTwo
Input: Two numbers
2. Divide the result by 2
3. Return the result of step 2
End
Example 2
Write an algorithm to change a numeric grade to a
Solution
Input: One number
1. if (the number is greater than or equal to 60)
then
1.1 Set the grade to “pass”
else
1.2 Set the grade to “nopass”
End if
End
Example 3
Write an algorithm to change a numeric grade to a letter grade.
Solution
Input: One number
1. if (the number is between 90 and 100, inclusive)
then
1.1 Set the grade to “A”
End if
2. if (the number is between 80 and 89, inclusive)
then
2.1 Set the grade to “B”
End if
… See page 148
Example 4
Write an algorithm to find the largest of a set of numbers.
You do not know the number of numbers.
Solution
1.
2.
3.
FindLargest
Input: A list of positive integers
Set Largest to 0
while (more integers)
2.1 if (the integer is greater than Largest)
then
2.1.1 Set largest to the value of the integer
End if
End while
Return Largest
End
Example 5
Write an algorithm to find the largest of 1000 numbers.
Solution
1.
2.
3.
4.
FindLargest
Input: 1000 positive integers
Set Largest to 0
Set Counter to 0
while (Counter less than 1000)
3.1 if (the integer is greater than Largest)
then
3.1.1 Set Largest to the value of the integer
End if
3.2 Increment Counter
End while
Return Largest
End
Flowchart
• A flowchart is a pictorial representation of an
algorithm.
• It shows the logic flow of a program. In a
programming environment, it can be used to
design a complete program or just part of a
program.
• It hides all of the details of an algorithm in an
attempt to give the big picture; it shows how the
algorithm flows from beginning to end.
36
Flowchart Symbols
terminal
input / output
decision
n
process
notation
flow lines
connector
1
begin
3
2
Y
N
3
3
1
end
2
37
Flowchart
38
Flowchart
Three basic constructs in flowchart:
Y
A
N
B
A
B
sequence
decision
A
A
while
Y
until
N
N
Y
repetition
39
Flowchart example 1
begin
1&times;2&times;3 &times;4&times;5= ?
1→p ; 2 →i
Assume: p、i
p&times;i→p
p &times; i → p；
i +1→i
i +1→i
S1: 1 → p ; 2 → i
S2: p&times;i → p
S3: i + 1 → i
S4: if i≤5 go to S2
else
go to S5
S5: output
Loop body
i≤5
Y
N
result
end
40
Flowchart example2
how do we get the greatest common divisor
of two integers: m and n?
For example:
m=12, n=8; or
m=100, n=36 ?
begin
Input m, n
Get remainder
M%n -&gt; r
r=0?
N
Y
output n
n -&gt; m; r-&gt; n
end
41
Exercise
1. Rewrite the GCD example in pseudocode.
2. Rewrite the Algorithm 8.4 Find largest
(page149) example in flowchart.
42
ATM Example
• Write the algorithm for a simple ATM
machine. It should include two functions:
deposit and withdrawal.
43
ATM Example
1. Get the password from the user.
2. If the password is not valid, construct an error message and
3. Get the inputs.
3.1 Get the transaction type and the amount from the user.
3.2 Get the current balance from the bank.
4.
5.
If the transaction type is deposit, add amount to the current
balance.
If the transaction type is withdrawal, check the current
balance.
5.1 If amount is larger than balance, error and skip to step 6.
5.2 If amount is equal to or less than balance, subtract.
6.
7.
Output the error message or the cash, and the current
balance.
Ask the user whether to repeat step 3 though 6 for another
transaction.
44
ATM Example
Flowcharts for two functions of ATM machine
Get deposit amount
Print the receipt
Get cash amount
Subtract amount from balance
Dispense the cash
45
ATM Example
Complete ATM machine flowchart
Y
Get type and amount
N
deposit
to balance
withdrawal
Deposit or
withdrawal?
N
Amount &lt; balance
Y
Subtract amount
from balance
Give response
or error
46
Subprograms
• The principles of structured programming require
that an algorithm be broken into small units called
subalgorithms (the term subprograms, subroutines,
procedures, functions, methods, and modules are
also used).
• Each subalgorithm is in turn divided into smaller
subalgorithms.
• The process continues until the subalgorithm
become intrinsic (understood easily).
47
Subprograms
• We can divide “Algorithm Find Largest”
into a main algorithm and a subalgorithm.
• In each iteration, the algorithm finds the
larger of two integers.
• We can separate this part of the task and
create a small subtask out of it.
48
Subprograms
• In line 2.1, FindLargest is suspended and
FindLarger begins.
• FindLarger finds the larger number between the
current Largest value and the current integer value.
This is known as a function call.
• Note that in each iteration, FindLarger is called
once.
• The advantages of using subalgorithms:
– It is more understandable.
– A subalgorithm can be called many times in different
parts of the main algorithm without being rewritten.
49
Subprograms
1.
2.
3.
1.
FindLargest
Input: A list of positive integers
Set Largest to 0
while (more integers)
2.1 FindLarger
End while
Return Largest
End
FindLarger
Input: Largest and current integer
if (the integer is greater than Largest)
then
1.1 Set Largest to the value of the integer
End if
End
50
Structure chart
• A structure chart is a high-level design tool
that shows the relationship between
different modules in an algorithm.
• It is mostly used at the design level. In other
words, it is created before you start writing
51
Structure Chart
Symbols used in the structure chart:
Function
Common
function
Condition
Loop
Condition
loop
(+)
Exclusive OR
Data flow
Flag
52
Structure Chart
Using the structure chart to write the algorithm
for a simple ATM machine in top-down design.
Simulate an
ATM machine
Get inputs
Perform all
calculations
Give outputs
First-level ATM structure chart
53
Structure Chart
Get inputs
Second-level
structure
chart for ATM
input
Get
Get
Get
transaction transaction
type
amount
Give outputs
Print
error
Print
balance
Second-level
structure chart
Dispense for ATM
cash
output
54
Structure Chart
Perform
calculations
Handle
deposits
to balance
Check
balance
Handle
withdrawals
Subtract amount
from balance
Give
error
Second- and third-level structure chart for
ATM calculations
55
Example
1. Write an algorithm that will calculate and print
the average grade on three tests for an entire class.
(in pseudocode, structure chart and flowchart)
Pseudocode:
1. Get the 3 test scores;
3. Divide the sum by 3;
4. Print the average;
5. Repeat step1 through 4 for each student.
56
Example (con.)
Structure chart:
Calculate
Get inputs
Get 3 scores
Calculate
Divide by 3
Note
The structure chart gives no indication of looping.
The iteration is shown in the pseudocode and
flowchart.
57
Example (con.)
Flowchart:
Get 3 scores
Divide the sum by 3
Print the average
More
students?
N
Y
58
Example
2. Write an algorithm for a simple calculator (in
pseudocode and structure chart).
Pseudocode:
1. Get two numbers and the operation desired.
2. Check the operation:
2.1 If operation is addition, the result is the first + the
second;
2.2 If operation is subtraction, the result is the first the second;
2.3 If operation is multiplication, the result is the first *
the second;
2.4 If operation is division, check the second number:
2.4.1 If zero, send error message.
2.4.2 If not zero, the first / the second.
3. Print out the result or the error message.
59
Example (con.)
Structure chart:
perform
inputs
2 numbers
calculator
operation
subtraction
outputs
result
division
Check 2nd for zero
error
multiplication
Create error
60
Example
3. Write an algorithm in pseudocode for a program to
calculate the area of simple shapes (rectangle, right
triangle and circle).
1.
2.
Get the shape desired.
If it is a rectangle:
2.1 get the length and width.
2.2 calculate the area as length * width.
3. If it is a right triangle:
3.1 get the base and height.
3.2 calculate the area as base* height / 2.
4. If it is a circle:
5. Print out the area.
61
part 4
Basic Algorithms
62
Summation
63
Product
64
Sorting
• Sorting is the process by which data are
arranged according to their values.
• There are three fundamental sorting
algorithms:
– Selection sort
– Bubble sort
– Insertion sort
65
Selection sort
• In selection sort, the list is divided into 2 sublists—sorted
and unsorted—which are divided by an imaginary wall.
• You find the smallest element from the unsorted sublist
and swap it with the element at the beginning of the
unsorted data.
• After each selection and swapping, the imaginary wall
moves one element ahead, increasing the number of sorted
elements and decreasing the number of unsorted ones.
• Each time you move one element from the unsorted sublist
to the sorted sublist, you have completed a sort pass.
• A list of n elements requires n-1 passes to completely
rearrange the data.
66
67
68
69
Bubble sort
• In bubble sort method, the list is divided into 2 sublists—
sorted and unsorted.
• The smallest element is bubbled from the unsorted sublist
and moved to the sorted sublist.
• After the smallest element has been moved to the sorted
list, the wall moves one element ahead.
• Each time an element moves from the unsorted sublist to
the sorted sublist, one sort pass is completed.
• Given a list of n elements, bubble sort requires up to n-1
passes to sort the data.
70
71
Insertion sort
• In insertion sort method, the list is divided into 2
sublists—sorted and unsorted.
• In each pass, the first element of the unsorted
sublist is picked up, transferred to the sorted list,
and inserted at the appropriate place.
• Note that a list of n elements will take at most n-1
passes to sort the data.
72
73
Searching
• Searching is the process of finding the
location of a target among a list of objects.
• In the case of a list, searching means that
given a value, you want to find the location
(index) of the first element in the list that
contains that value.
74
Sequential search
• Sequential search is used if the list being
searched is not ordered.
• In a sequential search, you start searching
for the target from the beginning of the list.
• You continue until you either find the target
or you are sure that it is not in the list
(because you have reached the end of the
list).
75
76
Binary search
• If the list is sorted, you can use a more
efficient algorithm called binary search.
• A binary search starts by testing the data in
the element at the middle of the list.
• This determines if the target is in the first
half or the second half of the list.
• With every pass, we eliminate half of the
list.
77
part 5
Recursion
78
Recursion
• In general, there are two approaches to
writing algorithms for solving a problem:
– Iteration
– Recursion
• Recursion is a process in which an
algorithm calls itself.
79
Iterative definition of factorial
• An algorithm is iterative whenever the
definition does not involve the algorithm
itself.
80
Recursive definition of factorial
• An algorithm is defined recursively
whenever the algorithm appears within the
definition itself.
81
Recursion
• The recursive solution for a problem
involves a two-way journey.
• First you decompose the problem from top
to bottom, and then you solve it from
bottom to top.
82
Iterative solution of factorial
1.
2.
3.
4.
Factorial
Input: A positive integer num
Set FactN to 0
Set i to 1
while (i is less than or equal to num)
3.1 Set FactN to FactN x I
3.2 Increment i
End while
Return FactN
End
83
Recursive solution of factorial
Factorial
Input: A positive integer num
1. if (num is equal to 0)
then
1.1 return 1
else
1.2 return num x Factorial (num – 1)
End if
End
84
part 6
Evolution
85
Evolution
• A computer language is a set of predefined
words that are combined into a program
according to predefined rules (syntax).
• Computer languages have evolved from
machine language to natural languages.
86
Machine languages
• Machine language, the lowest level of language, is
the basic language of the computer, representing
data as 1s and 0s.
• Machine programs vary from computer to
computer; that is, they are machine dependent.
• The only language understood by a computer is
machine language.
• These binary digits correspond to the on and off
electrical states of the computer.
87
Machine languages
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
00000000
00000100
0000000000000000
01011110 00001100110000100000000000000010
11101111 000101100000000000000101
11101111 10011110 0000000000001011
11111000 10101101
11011111 0000000000010010
0110001011011111 0000000000010101
11101111 00000010
11111011 0000000000010111
11110100 1010110111011111 0000000000011110
0000001110100010
11011111 0000000000100001
11101111 00000010
11111011 0000000000100100
01111110 11110100 10101101
11111000 10101110 110001010000000000101011
0000011010100010
11111011 0000000000110001
11101111 00000010
11111011 0000000000110100
00000100
0000000000111101
00000100
0000000000111101
• Advantage: it works efficiently for computer.
• Disadvantage: it is not convenient for people to read and use.88
Symbolic languages
• Symbolic language, also called assembly language,
is a low-level language that allows a programmer
to use abbreviations or easily remembered words
• Assembly language varies from computer to
computer; it’s machine dependent.
• A programmer can write instructions in assembly
language more quickly than in machine language;
however, it’s still not an easy one to learn, and it’s
so tedious to use that mistakes are frequent.
89
Symbolic languages
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
00000000 00000100 0000000000000000
Entry
main, ^m&lt;r2&gt;
01011110 00001100 11000010 0000000000000010
subl2
#12,sp
11101111 00010110 0000000000000101
jsb
C\$MAIN_ARGS
11101111 10011110 0000000000001011
movab \$CHAR_STRING_CON
11111000 10101101 11011111 0000000000010010
01100010 11011111 0000000000010101
pushal -8(fp)
11101111 00000010 11111011 0000000000010111
pushal (r2)
11110100 10101101 11011111 0000000000011110
calls
00000011 10100010 11011111 0000000000100001
pushal -12(fp)
11101111 00000010 11111011 0000000000100100
pushal 3(r2)
01111110 11101000 10101101
calls
11111000 10101110 11000101 0000000000101011
mull3
-8(fp),-12(fp),00000110 10100010 11111011 0000000000110001
pushal 6(r2)
11101111 00000010 11111011 0000000000110100
calls
#2,print
00000100
0000000000111101
clrl
r0
00000100
0000000000111101
ret
90
Language translators
• A special program called an assembler is
used to translate symbolic code into
machine language.
• A language translator is a type of system
software that translates a program written in
a second- or higher-generation language
into machine language.
91
Language translators
• Languages translators are of three types:
– Assemblers
– Compilers
– Interpreters
Source
Code
Language Translator
Object
Code
92
High-level languages
• A high level language is an English-like
language that allows users to write in a
familiar notation, rather than numbers or
abbreviations.
• Most high-level languages are not machine
dependent; they can be used on more than
one kind of computers.
• They are portable, allowing the programmer
to concentrate on the application rather than
the intricacies of the computer.
93
High-level languages
• The translator for high-level languages is
depending on the language, either a compiler or an
interpreter.
• Compiler—execute later. It’s software that looks
at an entire high-level program before translating
it into machine language. Examples are C and
COBOL.
• Interpreter—execute immediately. It’s software
that converts high-level language statements into
machine language one at a time, in succession.
Examples are BASIC and LISP.
94
Natural languages
• Natural languages are of two types.
– The first are ordinary human languages (such as
Chinese, English, Spanish and so on).
– The second are programming languages that
use human language to give people a more
natural connection with computer.
• Natural languages are part of the field of
study known as artificial intelligence (AI).
95
part 7
Categories of languages
96
Categories of languages
• We divide computer languages into five
categories:
97
Procedural languages
• A procedural language is a set of instructions that
are executed one by one from beginning to end
unless an instruction forces the control elsewhere.
• When programmers need to solve a problem using
one of the procedural languages, they should know
the procedure to follow.
• Because each instruction of procedural languages
is a command to the computer system to do some
called imperative languages.
98
Procedural languages
• FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation)
Language
• Pascal
• C
99
Object-oriented languages
• Unlike C and Pascal are procedural oriented
languages, forcing the user to follow a
predetermined path from step A to Step B
and so on, object-oriented languages are
event driven—that is, they respond to input
from the user or other programs at
unregulated times and thus are driven by
user choices.
100
Object-oriented languages
• If we think of a data item in a programming
language as an object, a program can be thought of
as a series of operations that you want to perform
on the object.
• In procedural languages, the objects are passive.
They do not have operations defined for them. The
programmers define the operations and apply them
to the objects.
• In object-oriented programming, the objects and
the operations to be applied to them are tied
together. The objects are active.
101
Object-oriented languages
• C++
– Encapsulation
– Inheritance
– Polymorphism
• Java
– Application vs. applet
102
Part 8
Building a program
103
Building a program
• It is the job of a programmer to write the
program and then turn it into an executable
(machine language) file.
• There are 3 steps in this process:
– Writing and editing the program
– Compiling the program
– Linking the program with the required library
modules
104
Edit
program
Compile
program
*.c
Edit
program
C Library
Compile
System
*.exe
*.obj
Compile
Execute
*.obj
105
106
part 9
Elements of programming languages
107
Elements of Programming Languages
• There are variables or objects, in which you
can store the pieces of data that a program is
working on.
• There are expressions, which compute new
values from old ones.
• There are assignments which store values
(of expressions, or other variables) into
variables.
108
Elements of Programming Languages
• There are conditionals which can be used to
determine whether some condition is true,
such as whether one number is greater than
another.
• Variables and expressions may have types,
indicating the nature of the expected values.
• There are statements which contain
instructions describing what a program
actually does.
109
Elements of Programming Languages
• There are control flow constructs which determine
what order statements are performed in.
• An entire set of statements, declarations, and
control flow constructs can be lumped together
into a function (also called routine, subroutine, or
procedure) which another piece of code can then
call as a unit.
• A set of functions, global variables, and other
elements makes up a program. The source code
for a program may be distributed among one or
more source files.
110
Elements of Programming Languages
• Many of these elements exist in a hierarchy.
• A program typically consists of functions
and global variables; a function is made up
of statements; statements usually contain
expressions; expressions operate on objects.
functions
statements
expressions
objects
Program
global variables
111
112
113
Skills Needed in Programming
• The first hard thing about programming is
to learn, become comfortable with, and
accept some artificial mechanisms,
whether they make “sense” to you or not.
• Attention to detail
• Stupidity
• Good memory
• Ability to abstract, think on several levels
114
Attention to detail
• In programming, the details matter.
• You can't be vague; you can't describe your
program 3/4 of the way and then say “You
know what I mean?” and have the compiler
figure out the rest.
• If the language says you have to declare
variables before using them, you have
to. ……
115
Stupidity
• Computers are incredibly stupid.
• They do exactly what you tell them to do: no more,
no less.
• When you're programming, it helps to be able to
“think” as stupidly as the computer does, so that
you're in the right frame of mind for specifying
everything in minute detail, and not assuming that
the right thing will happen unless you tell it to.
116
Good memory
• Things to remember while programming:
– the syntax of the language
– the set of prewritten functions and their parameters
– what variables and functions you've defined in
your program and how you're using them
– techniques you've used or seen in the past
– bugs you've had in the past.
117
Ability to abstract
• One of the most powerful techniques for managing
the complexity of a software system (or any complex
system) is to compartmentalize it into little ''black
box'' processes which perform useful tasks but which
hide some details so you don't have to think about
them all the time.
• Think about the mechanics of a design hierarchy,
while also use that hierarchy to avoid having to think
about every detail of it at every level.
118
Objectives
• Define algorithms.
• List the 5 essential properties of an algorithm.
• Define and use the three constructs for developing
algorithms: sequence, decision, and repetition.
• Understand and use three tools to represent
algorithms: flowchart, pseudocode, and structure
chart.
• Understand the concept of modularity and
subalgorithms.
• List and comprehend common algorithms, such as
sorting and searching.
• Differentiate between recursion and iteration. 119
Objectives
• Have a vision of computer language evolution.
• Distinguish between machine, assembly, and highlevel languages.
• Distinguish between the different categories of
languages: procedural, object-oriented, functional,
declarative, and special.
• Understand the process of creating and running a
program.
• Become familiar with elements of programming
languages.
120
That’s all for this chapter!
121