Elements of a Story There are two types of stories: fiction: describes imaginary people and events nonfiction: factual writing based on true events Separate each into two categories, either fiction or nonfiction. play recipe essay short story almanac screenplay poem biography song class notes novel proposal lab report journal blog encyclopedia how to manual work email autobiography atlas twitter memoir phone text Setting The time and location in which a story takes place place: geographical location time: historical period, time of day, year weather conditions: rainy, sunny, stormy social conditions: the daily life of the characters mood or atmosphere: feeling created, bright and cheerful, dark and frightening, casual and comical Plot Let’s go to http://www.glencoe.com/sec/literature/cour se/course4/unit1/shortstory.shtml## to practice plot. Conflict Conflict is essential to plot. Without conflict there is no plot. external: a struggle with a force outside one's self. internal: a struggle within one's self Types of Conflict External: Man vs. Man (physical) - against other men, forces of nature, or animals. Man vs. Circumstances (classical) - against fate, or the circumstances of life facing him/her. Man vs. Society (social) - against ideas, practices, or customs of other people. Internal: Man vs. Himself/Herself (psychological) - with himself/herself Which type of conflict is described below? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. A woman argues with her boss. A man is angry with himself for never attending college. A teenager is too embarrassed to go to school. A man is sick in bed. A terrorist is angry with America for our arrogance, prosperity, and lack of morals. A child is bitten by a snake. A woman never owns a home because of her poverty caused by racism and lack of resources. Fate forced a man to lose his card game in Las Vegas. A man visits a foreign country and doesn’t know how to use the chopsticks. Because the woman never took her car to a mechanic, her breaks fail her while driving down a hill. Character There are two meanings for the word character. 1) The person in a work of fiction. 2) The characteristics of a person. There are two types of characters. protagonist: most important or main character antagonist: character opposing the main character The Characteristics of a Person Characterization is the information the author gives the reader about the characters themselves. 1. physical appearance 2. what he/she says, thinks, feels and dreams 3. what he/she does or does not do 4. what others say about and react to him/her Types of Characters individual: round and complex personalities. developing: dynamic, many sided personalities that change by the end of the story. static: Stereotype, have one or two characteristics that never change (brilliant detective, drunk, scrooge, cruel stepmother) Which type of characters are the following people from the short stories we read? The Necklace: Me. Loisel, M. Loisel, Me. Forestier The Most Dangerous Game: Whitney, Rainsford, Ivan, General Zaroff Marigolds: Lizabeth, Miss Lottie, Joey, John Burke, mother, father The Gift of the Magi: Della, James The Possibility of Evil: Miss Strangeworth, Mrs. Crane, the Harris boy You are to give this man life. Looking very carefully at the picture, describe this man’s external characteristics and then determine what makes him “tick” by describing his internal characteristics. External Characteristics 1. What is the age of this man? 2. What is his build and height? 3. What is his hair and eye color? 4. What clothing does he wear? Inferences 1. What is his name? 2. What kind of job does he hold? 3. What does his clothing suggest about him? 4. What is his education? 5. Is he married or single? 6. Does he have a family? 7. What does he do for entertainment? 8. Does he live in a house or an apartment? Internal Characteristics 1. What does this man value above all else? 2. How would he react in a crisis? 3. What kind of mood is he in most of the time? 4. What is the one major personality flaw this man possesses? 5. What are this man’s personality strengths? 6. What will make this man really angry, and how is he most likely to react? 7. What kinds of situations does this man find himself in most often? 8. What are the basic beliefs of this man? 9. What inspires this man? Point of View Point of view, or p.o.v., is defined as the angle from which the story is told. It is told in either first person (using I, me, my) or third person (he, she, it, they). Types of First Person innocent eye: through the eyes of a child stream of consciousness: the reader feels they are inside the head of one character first person: told by the protagonist and sees the story through this person's eyes as he/she experiences it and only knows what he/she knows or feels. Types of Third Person Omniscient: moves from character to character with free access to the thoughts, feelings and motivations a) Omniscient Limited - We can see the thoughts and feelings of characters if the author chooses to reveal them to us. b) Omniscient Objective –It appears as though a camera is following the characters, going anywhere, and recording only what is seen and heard, but there is no comment on the characters or their thoughts. Examples of P.O.V. 1. I was minding my own business when Mom burst in. “What’s with you?” I grumbled. 2. He gripped the dollar bill tightly. “You can’t have it,” he told her. 3. She ordered her favorite soup, remembering that weekend John had convinced her to try it. 4. She ordered asparagus soup. John smiled. “Do you remember?” he asked. 5. She thought to herself, “Why didn’t John tell me about this soup earlier! It is so tasty!” John sat across from her deep in his own thoughts. “I can’t believe she’s finally trying my favorite soup! You’d think after all these years she would have tried it at least once.” Theme The theme is the author's underlying meaning or main idea that he/she is trying to convey. Some common themes are: - Things are not always as they appear to be - Love is blind - Believe in yourself - People are afraid of change - Don't judge a book by its cover What are the themes to the following short stories? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Necklace The Most Dangerous Game Marigolds The Gift of the Magi The Possibility of Evil Common Literary Devices For each of these devices, think of an example from one of the stories we read in class. foreshadowing: the use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in the story. flashback: when a writer presents past events during current events, in order to provide background for the current narration. imagery: descriptive language that appeals to the senses. foil: A character who provides a contrast to the protagonist. Irony irony: the opposite of what you expect verbal irony: the contrast between what is said and what is actually meant, like sarcasm. situational irony: an event that happens that is the opposite of what is expected dramatic irony: this occurs when the audience or reader knows more than the characters know. symbolism: A person, place, color or object in a story which suggests other meanings. It is repeated throughout the story. For example, bright sunshine symbolizes goodness and water is a symbolic cleanser.