Learning styles and strategies

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Learning Styles and
Strategies
Vinod Patel
Bernadette O’Hare
Aim.
• To help you understand your preferred
learning style
• To improve your understanding of how
a knowledge of learning styles can
facilitate effective teaching and learning
Objectives.
• To appreciate the benefits of a learning
styles analysis in forming an effective
teaching faculty
• To persuade teachers that consideration of
the learning styles is important to effective
teaching
Medical Education
From Theory to Practice
Outcome
Teachers , Facilitators &
Teaching Environment
Curriculum
Student
Teaching
methods
Assessmen
t methods
Knowledge
Learning
Experience
Skills
Best Clinical
Practices
Attitudes
Improved
patient
outcome
Current
or Future
Patients
Clinical
Settings
Modified David M Kaufman 2003
Elements of Effective
Learning and Teaching
General principles of effective learning and teaching
which apply to any learning encounter:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Discover what the trainee wants to learn
Discover what the trainee needs to learn
Negotiate the content, methods and priorities of the session
Use appropriate methods and techniques
Plans for further learning
Example of good practice that reinforces learning
Establish a relationship with the trainee
Evaluate the teaching.
Two Gogies!: Peda and Andro
Pedagogy and Androgogy:
Schön stressed the distinction between the teaching
of children (pedagogy) and adult learning
(androgogy).
What is your teaching style?
Pedagogy
•.
•.
•.
•.
•.
Occupation:
Androgogy
•
•
•
•
•
.
.
.
.
.
What is your teaching style?
Pedagogy
Androgogy
• Compulsory
• teacher-centred
• minimal control by the
learner
• training for life
• encourages convergent
thinking
• rote learning
• dependency on educator's
learning
• imparting of information
•
•
•
•
Occupation:
•
•
•
•
•
Voluntary
learner-orientated
education as freedom
assimilation of learning with life
experience
encourages divergent thinking
active learning
learning and teaching roles are
blurred
opens vistas for continuing
learning and peer learning
Uncertainty about the outcome,
whatever the curriculum content
Characteristics of Adult Learners
• Adult education is therefore most productive when:
– The learners are engaged in the design of learning
– The learners are encouraged to be self-directed
– The educator functions as a facilitator rather than a didactic
instructor
– The individual learners' needs and learning styles are taken
into account
– A climate conducive to learning is established
– The learner's past experiences are used in the learning
process
– Learning activities seem to have some relevance to the
learner's circumstances
Rogers
Adult education
The purpose of adult education is to help them
to learn, not to teach them all they know and
thus stop them from carrying on learning.
Rogers
Characteristics of Adult
Learners
Brookfield identified six main ones:
• They are not beginners, but in a continuing process of
growth
• They bring a unique package of experiences and values
• They come to education with intentions
• They bring expectation about the learning process
• They have competing interests - realities of their lives
• They already have their own set patterns of learning
Learning Styles
Honey & Mumford 1992
• Learning styles evolved as people repeated successful
strategies and tactics and discontinued those that were
not
• Certain behaviour patterns can develop and become
habitual
• People gravitate towards careers that are compatible with
their preferred modus operandi.
Learning Styles
Activists
1. Activists involve themselves fully and without bias in new experiences
2. They enjoy the here and now and are happy to be dominated by
immediate experiences
3. They are open-minded, not sceptical, and this tends to make them
enthusiastic about anything new
4. Their philosophy is: "I'll try anything once". They tend to act first and
consider the consequences afterwards.
5. Their days are filled with activity
6. They tackle problems by brainstorming
7. As soon as the excitement from one activity has died down they are
busy looking for the next
8. They tend to thrive on the challenge of new experiences but are bored
with implementation and longer term consolidation
9. They are gregarious people constantly involving themselves with others
10. In doing so, they seek to centre all activities around themselves.
Learning Styles
Reflectors
1. Reflectors like to stand back to ponder experiences and observe them
from many different perspectives
2. Prefer to think about “it” thoroughly before coming to any conclusion.
3. A thorough analysis of data about experiences and events is really
important
4. The above can lead to postponing reaching definitive conclusions for as
long as possible
5. Their philosophy is to be cautious. They are thoughtful people who like to
consider all possible angles and implications before making a move
6. They prefer to take a back seat in meetings and discussions
7. They enjoy observing other people in action
8. They listen to others and get the drift of the discussion before making their
own points
9. They tend to adopt a low profile and have a slightly distant, tolerant,
unruffled air about them
10. When they act it is part of a wide picture which includes the past as well
as the present and others' observations as well as their own.
Theorists
Learning Styles
1. Theorists adapt and integrate observations into complex but logically
sound theories.
2. They think problems through in a vertical, step by step, logical way.
3. They assimilate disparate facts into coherent theories.
4. They tend to be perfectionists who won't rest easy until things are tidy
and fit into a rational scheme.
5. They like to analyse and synthesise. They are keen on basic
assumptions, principles, theories, models and systems thinking.
6. Their philosophy prizes rationality and logic. "If it's logical it's good".
Questions they frequently ask are; "Does it make sense?" "How does
this fit with that?" "What are the basic assumptions?"
7. They tend to be detached, analytical and dedicated to rational
objectivity rather than anything subjective or ambiguous.
8. Their approach to problems is consistently logical.
9. This is their 'mental set' and they rigidly reject anything that doesn't fit
with it.
10. They prefer to maximise certainty and feel uncomfortable with
subjective judgements, lateral thinking and anything flippant.
Pragmatists
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Learning
Styles
Pragmatists are keen on trying out ideas, theories and techniques to
see if they work in practice.
They positively search out new ideas
Take the first opportunity to experiment with applications.
They are the sort of people who return from management courses
brimming with new ideas that they want to try out in practice.
They like to get on with things and act quickly and confidently on
ideas that attract them.
They tend to be impatient with ruminating and open-ended
discussions.
They are essentially practical, down to earth people who like making
practical decisions and solving problems.
They respond to problems and opportunities 'as a challenge'.
Their philosophy is: "There is always a better way" and "If it works it's
good“
Pragmatists learn best when there is an obvious link between the
subject and their daily job
Learning Styles Exercise
Step 1:
• Work in pairs
with someone
you know from
the course but
a different
specialty
• Please spend 3-4 minutes looking through the 4
styles on your own
Step 2:
• Go through the 4 styles and ring any that apply
to you, add up for each style and overall.
Step 3:
• Try to assess your partner’s learning style (do
not share)
Step 4:
• Share data with partner and group (if
comfortable)
The Kolb Cycle
The Experiential Learning Cycle
Each style 'connects' with a stage on the continuous learning cycle.
Activist preferences, with their 'I'll try anything once' approach
are well equipped for ……..
Reflector preferences, with their predilection for mulling over data
are well equipped for ……..
Theorist preferences, with their need to tidy up and have answers
are well equipped for ……..
Pragmatist preferences, with their liking for things practical
are well equipped for New Actions ……..
Theorising
New Actions
Reviewing Experience
The Kolb Cycle
The Experiential Learning Cycle
Each style 'connects' with a stage on the continuous learning cycle.
1. Activist preferences, with their 'I'll try anything once' approach
are well equipped for Experiencing.
1. Reflector preferences, with their predilection for mulling over data
are well equipped for Reviewing
1. Theorist preferences, with their need to tidy up and have answers
are well equipped for Concluding after theorising
1. Pragmatist preferences, with their liking for things practical
are well equipped for New Actions
Theorising
New Actions
Reviewing Experience
Learning Strategies
Each style 'connects' with a stage on the continuous learning cycle.
Pragmatist
Theorist
Reflector
Activist
The Jigsaw?
Theorist
..
•Non-active response
•Thoughtful repose
Pragmatist
• Stands upright
• Single vision
:
•1 head too many
:
..
..
:
Activist
•Tries to be a pragmatist
•Tendency to confusion
:
:
Reflector
• Has 3 heads
• Looks at all angles
Stages of Self-directed Learning
Not all learners are ready to take responsibility for their own
learning. This model proposes four stages of self-direction
for the student:
–
–
–
–
Dependent learner
Interested learner
Involved learner and
Self-directed learner
It is better if the teacher's style matches the learner's
preference.
"The teacher's purpose is to match the learner's stage of
self-direction and prepare the learner to advance to higher
stages.“
Gerald Grow
Stages of Self-directed Learning
Student
Teacher
Stage 1
Dependent Authority,
Coach
Stage 2
Interested
Motivator,
guide
Stage 3
Involved
Facilitator
Stage 4
Selfdirected
Consultant,
Delegator
Examples
Coaching with immediate feedback
Drill
Informational lecture Overcoming
deficiencies and resistance
Inspiring lecture plus guided discussion
Goal-setting and learning strategies
Discussion facilitated by teacher who
participates as equal
Seminar ,Group projects.
Dissertation
Individual work or self-directed studygroup.
Stages of Self-directed Learning
What happens if there is a mis-match between the learner's
stagle and the teacher's style ?
Match and Mismatch between Learner Stages and Teacher
Styles
Applying the Staged Self-Direction Model to a Course
Grow,
Gerald O. (1991/1996). "Teaching Learners to be SelfDirected."Adult Education Quarterly, 41 (3), 125-149.
Summary: Learning Styles
• To be an effective teacher it is useful to know
your own learning style
• An effective teaching faculty should ideally
incorporate members with skills in each of the 4
domains
• As a whole the 4 domains form a learning cycle
and are essential in all teachers to greater or
lesser extent
Pendleton's Rules (of feedback)
Pendleton's rules of feedback for discussing video consultations
• Briefly clarify any matters of fact.
• The doctor on the video goes first and must discuss
first what he/she did well.
–
Ask: what did you do well?
• Observers then discuss what he/she did well.
– Ask: what did he/she do well?
• The doctor on the video then describes what he/she
did not do well and recommendations for change.
– Ask: how would you have done it better?
• Observers then discuss what he/she did not do
well and recommendations for change.
– Ask: how could he/she have done it better
Summary
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Organised, short sessions
Patient and students briefed
Comfortable environment
Clear focussed learning objective
Use the patient
Feedback on performance
Subsequent discussion
Then said a teacher, speak to us of Teaching.
And he said:
The teacher …gives not of his Wisdom but rather of
his faith and his lovingness.
If he is indeed wise he does not bid you enter the
house of his wisdom, but rather leads you to the
threshold of your own mind.
Kahlil Gibran
1883 - 1931
Kahlil Gibran
1883 - 1931
The astronomer may speak to you of his
understanding of space, but he cannot give you his
under-standing.
The musician may sing to you of the rhythm which is
in all space, but he cannot give you the ear which
arrests the rhythm, nor the voice that echoes it.
Characteristics of Adult Learners
Brookfield identified six main characteristics of adult
learners.
1. They are not beginners, but are in a continuing
process of growth
2. They bring with them a unique package of
experiences and values
3. They come to education with intentions
4. They bring expectation about the learning process
5. They have competing interests - the realities of their
lives
6. They already have their own set patterns of learning
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