ACE alcohol culture exchange Alcohol and the urban environment Alcohol in the urban environment? Does this… … mean this? What was the plan? Licensing reform will ‘blow away the cobwebs in British life’ (George Howarth, Home Office Minister, 1998) Licensing Act 2003 (2005) Licensing from magistrates to LAs No fixed closing Cosmopolitan ‘café society’ The ‘politics of behaviour’ and culture change But everyone knows that…. … or is it? Exhibit A: The Gin Craze William Hogarth, ‘Gin Lane’ (1751) But… Lack of licensing controls Expansion of supply Low taxation Urban poverty Reactive policymaking Concerns about women National character? Consumption (gallons per head) 1800-1935 Source: Health Committee, Alcohol (2010) Consumption (litres per head) 1965-2006 Source: BBPA, Statistical Handbook (2007) Consumption (avg weekly units) 1992-2006 Source: General Lifestyle Survey / ONS (2011), Smoking and Drinking among Adults, 2009 Changing cultures (1960-90) Licensing liberalised (1961 and 1964) Supermarket sales Foreign travel Global wine trade Greater affluence Demographic changes Changing cultures (1990+) New bar design Beer Orders (1990) Response to rave culture ‘24-hour cities’ ‘Need’ abandoned Pre-loading normalised Culture of consumption Media reporting Alcohol in the urban environment? Alcohol in the urban environment? Norms and expectations It’s as British as rain (drinking to get drunk is inevitable) Young people always do this: More enforcement (especially the off-trade) is the only answer Alcohol and the urban environment What is really happening? How can data be shared effectively? What is the role of education and adjustment of social norms? And how can this be achieved in practice? What is the role of enforcement? How can effective partnerships be established and maintained?