SPC 1315 / 1321 Dr. Tony DeMars Planned Schedule Today: Chaps 1-3, start 4-8 Wednesday: Chaps. 4-8, impromptu Outline & note card emailed by Wed. 10pm Hard copy start of class Thursday, stapled Thursday: Intro Speech Motivational topic Informative & Persuasive Speech topics Interview Project Planned Schedule Interview Project Select a job ad Create or fine tune a résumé Email rough draft by Fri ([email protected]) Schedule an information gathering visit and otherwise gather research In email -- short report about the visit Schedule an interview Remember… Learning to speak? Realizing you were saying something wrong? Feeling unsure of your communication in a group or one-on-one? Thinking about how well you conveyed a message? Not remembering someone’s name? Getting started Four parts of a proper speech: Research & development -- your own work Submission of rough draft then final materials Creation of presentation aids Practice sessions and evaluation Presentation of speech ‘Giving a Speech’ Research – not just Internet, citing sources, learning and sharing information Outlines and notes --- first drafts, final drafts, note card Speech organization Delivery gestures, movement, eye contact, speech patterns, appearance Evaluating the audience PowerPoint? This use, vs. a speech Questions? Prep steps Rough draft / final draft materials Research and full sentence outlines APA style for citing sources Final draft outline required for speech Getting Started Fear of Public Speaking Rather have a root canal Feared more than death But, really? Benefit of good communication skills Ability Better Better to be more involved in groups chances in getting a job ability to organize and present ideas How to improve? Understanding and practice Some things related to Chap. 1 Course outline has sample questions related to a broader area of each chapter than we cover in class http://www.tonydemars.com http://faculty.tamuc.edu/ tdemars In each case, click on SPC Class, then also see links on course outline Communication Process Similar to p. 11 Sender / encoding (meaning) / channel / noise / decoding / feedback Public Speaking ‘Giving a Speech’ Occasions: Business presentation, graduation speaker, after-dinner, eulogy (‘impromptu’ for tomorrow) ‘Capital S’ Speech: podium, stage, large audience Note: podium vs. lectern Note: accent vs. dialect Public Speaking: ‘an event when a group of people agree that one person, the speaker, will direct the event.’ Scholarly interpretation Scholars of preliterate societies remind us that speech is the most fundamental tool of social organization. Walter Ong special feature of oral cultures: when the spoken word was the only form of preserving culture, speech had to be memorable. Marshall MacLuhan and other media scholars coined the term ‘secondary orality’ to describe the rekindling of a preference for intense, visceral, immediate kinds of communication. Aristotle Three genres of speaking Three categories of persuasive appeals Forensic (like a courtroom) Deliberative (legislature) Epideictic / ceremonial (praise / blame) Logos -- most fundamental: logic and intellectual substance Pathos -- motivational appeals Ethos -- credibility of the speaker Aristotle said a speaker’s character is the most important means of persuasion he possesses. Public Speaking is Meaning Centered Many other factors and intellectual evaluations, but ultimately... Meaning Centered Meaning Meaning Meaning is social is contextual is negotiated in discouse (hegemony) Johari Window / similar to book’s four ‘stages of learning skills’ Three Communication Resources Draw on your conversation skills Relaxed, spontaneous, responsive to the situation, expression of feelings, compassion to others Draw on your writing skills Brainstorming, tinkering with ideas, attention to word choices and organization Draw on your performance skills Timing, emotional build-up, eye contact Common Misconceptions Good speakers are born, not made Good speaking should be easy right away Speaking will always be as difficult as it is when you’re first learning it There are simple formulas for public speaking Public speaking is mostly about performance Public Speaking Five Steps: Plan, Investigate, Compose, Practice, Present Most time? Investigate / compose / practice Speech nervousness? Incomplete preparation Types of delivery: Impromptu, Memorized, Extemporaneous We are doing extemporaneous (that uses a full sentence outline and note card) Types of content: lectures, informative speeches, persuasive speeches, ceremonial speeches, motivational speeches... Our main speeches: Informative and Persuasive Chap. 2 -- Listening Communication Model Sender / channel / noise / receiver / feedback We spend much more time listening than speaking Doing it a lot does not equate to doing it well Training ourselves to be good listeners Preparing to Listen Remove distractions (physical / mental) Stop Talking Decide on your purpose as a listener Be both curious and critical Show respect for the speaker Be open to the speaker’s point of view Improving Listening Follow the structure of the speech Speaker should have a good structure Assess speaker’s claims, ask questions at designated time Provide constructive feedback Start with the positive Make important comments first Be descriptive Offer suggestions, not orders Improving Listening Listen to optimize learning Paraphrase Ask follow-up questions TAKE NOTES! Listen holistically Listen at multiple levels Listen between the lines Listen to silences Listening pitfalls Daydreaming, doodling (surfing) Superficial qualities of speaker as distraction Uncritically accepting a message Prematurely or totally rejecting a message Planning your response or rebuttal instead of listening Dominating the feedback time, or withdrawn from the process Speech critiques Guide you toward following these listening issues Part of your grade Require relevant comments NOTICE -- the links for your speech evaluation page and the speech critique pages are NOT the same Questions / Discussion Why is listening important to public speaking? What advice would you give a friend required to give feedback to coworkers? What listening pitfalls do you find most challenging? Does ‘multitasking’ interfere with the communication process? Chap. 3 -- Ethics Two categories of ethical theories: Deontological: duty based Teleological: consequence-based Deontological: Judeo-Christian (the right) Teleological: Utilitarian (the good) Every action has an ethical dimension. Ethical decisions are rarely clear-cut. Ethical decisions vary with context. Ethics in speaking Never plagiarize Never fabricate / lie Don’t oversimplify Don’t use propaganda Videotaped / checked with turnitin.com Sources checked Name-calling, glittering generalities, testimonials, ‘just plain folks,’ card stacking, bandwagon, trasference Be sensitive to your audience Content and ideas Legal issues vs. ethics Libelous comments Privacy laws Encitement Hate Speech First Amendment protections Law allows much more than ethics, in the U.S. Speech samples as time permits Motivational or persuasive? Informative --or persuasive? Cloning Ethics? Propaganda? Evidence? Transitions? Delivery? “God intended”? Dinosaurs and Terrorists? Citations? Persuasive ? -- or motivational? Correction of errors? Clear overview? Enough evidence? (answers.com as a source?) His verbal ‘filling in of silence? His attention getting technique? His ‘are you ready’? Pounding the lectern a problem? Bad Informative Speech Reminders Course Outline and Syllabus on web site Grades on Engrade -- estimates of average E-mail: only [email protected] Speech content ONLY to [email protected] (except ... Visual PP) Tests not returned -- come see Speech preparations and practice Reading vs. class notes: Next -- overcoming fear, speech planning Questions?