Physical, Chemical and Cellular Basis of Life

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• Atom - smallest particle of an
element
• basic building blocks
molecules
Negative
• Molecules made up of carbon atoms !!!!!
• Carbon atoms are unique in that they can
bond together and create large polymers or
macromolecules
Single Bond-
Double Bond
Triple Bond
A monomer is a single unit
such as this link in the
entire chain.
•
•
•
•
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
Proteins
• Glucose and fructose are simple sugars called a
monosaccharide – Both have the chemical formula
C6H12O6
• A disaccharide, such as sucrose, contain 2 sugar monomers and a
polysaccharide contain numerous…….Below is the polymer starch
which is also a polysaccharide! What is the monomer??
**A branched polymer
made up of numerous
glucose monomers
** Stored in the Liver
and muscle of mammals
**Long-term energy
storage
** Quickly broken down
into glucose for
immediate energy
** Polymer of Glucose
** Stored in Plant cells
walls
**Offers the plant
support
** Energy storage
** Makes up cell wall
** Food source for seeds
and plant bulbs
The differences in structures of carbohydrates –
but remember all are glucose polymers!!!
Only Carbon-Carbon
single Bonds
Has Carbon-Carbon double
Bonds
Remember the cell membrane?
 Phospholipid bilayer!!!
 Semi-permeable, allowing only certain molecules to diffuse
across the membrane to enter or exit the cell.
• One example is cholesterol
• Most of the cholesterol in our bodies
is produced in the liver, though some
of it comes from the foods we eat.
• The body needs some cholesterol
• important to the body's cell
membranes
• the production of certain hormones
• helps act as insulation for your
nerves.
** The basic building blocks of proteins are called amino acids.
**Remember protein synthesis????
**A peptide bond bonds amino acids together
**Creates a polypeptide
• Chemical signaler protein produced in the pancreas
• Causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up
glucose from blood and convert it to glycogen that can be
stored in the liver and muscles
• Diabetes is a condition when a person has high blood glucose (blood
sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because
the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.
• A protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen
• Speed up the rate of a chemical reaction (a catalyst) by
lowering the energy needed to begin the reaction (Below)
• Re-usable
• Molecule specific – like a lock and key
•
-Example: ONLY Lactase will break down lactose. It
will NEVER break down proteins
Which substrate can be reduced by the enzyme??
Specific Enzyme
Starch
Protein
Active Site
Simple useable sugars
(product)
Lipid
***** Enzymes are
substrate-specific !!!!!
Enzymes are affected by:
pH Affects Enzyme Reactivity
Rate of Reaction
This enzyme functions in an environment that
has a pH of about 4, which is acidic
1
2
3
4
5
pH scale
6
7
8
9
 Single-Stranded
 Nitrogen bases
Adenine (A),
Cytosine (C),
Guanine (G),
Uracil (U)
 Remember NO
Thymine (T)
 Ribose sugar
 DoubleStranded
double helix
 Nitrogen bases
Adenine (A),
Cytosine (C),
Guanine (G),
Thymine (T)
 Remember NO
Uracil (U)
 Deoxy-ribose
sugar
• Complete the table of organic molecules
• Use the handout and this PowerPoint to guide you
• Cut out the illustrations and paste them in the appropriate
place!
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